- 1 ABSTRACT
- 2 CHAPTER ONE
This research work empirically explored the assessment of environmental factors on performance of small business enterprises: a study of Jemok table water in Delta state. The purpose of which is to investigate the impact of environmental factors on small business as well proffer solution to problems posed by environmental factors. The objectives of this study were examine the environmental factors that affect Jemok table water Delta state, investigate the extent to which environmental factors affect Jemok table water Delta state. The scope of the study is Jemok table water in 2019 making use of the senior and junior staff workers, contingency management theory was used as a framework. The research design used for this study is survey, the population targeted for this study consists of all the staff of Jemok table water, which is a total of 50 workers. 44 workers were used as sample size and cluster sampling technique was applied. Instrument used for this study is the questionnaire. Data collected were collected from primary sources. From the analysis of the data, the findings shows that environmental factors such as infrastructural facilities, tax policy affect the existence of small business enterprises in Nigeria, environmental factors affects small business enterprises drastically in Nigeria. Following the findings, it was recommended that infrastructural facilities should be provided by government and tax holidays granted to small business enterprise, small business enterprise should consider environmental factors when taking management decisions and strategizing. The study concludes that environmental factors has strong impact on small business enterprise’s survival.
Keywords: small business enterprise, environmental factors, business performance, Nigeria, Jemok table water.
1.1. Background to the Study
Small business enterprises are no doubt the engine room for economic growth, poverty alleviation, job creation and means of crime reduction. They constitute a large proportion of businesses worldwide and play significant role in any economy. Small business enterprises go through series of obstacles among which are environmental that inhibit their long-term survival. Resources have shown that the rate of failure of small-scale business in developing countries is higher than in developed world (Marlow, 2009).
For a business to realise its objectives, it depends greatly on the ability of the enterprise to accomplish its key performance indicator in a sustainable manner (Simerly and Mingfanf, 2000; Wan and Yiu, 2009). The business environment is very crucial to the success or failure of business. Dionco-Adetayo and Adetayo (2003) stated that a healthy business cannot survive in an unstable environment. Since business takes its input resources from the business environment and send its output to the environment (Oluremi and Gbenga, 2011).
Environmental factors can have positive or negative impact on small business enterprises. Ukaegbu (2004) stated that the contemporary environment is becoming more dynamic and competitive and since small business do not operate in vacuum, they affect and are affected by environmental conditions. Thus business enterprises must take into consideration environmental opportunities and constraints.
In spite of the major role, significance and contribution of small business enterprises to the nation’s economy, small business enterprises are still battling with many problems. They are faced with significant challenges that compromises their ability to function and to contribute optimally to the economy. Both internal and external environmental factors considerably affect the growth of small business enterprise such as administrative/legal factors, socio-cultural factors, political factors, economic factors, business entity size, organizational features, and commitment among others.
In Nigeria, small business enterprise constitute about 90% of the industrial sector, they also account for 70% of national industrial employment and 10% of manufacturing output (Ajayi, 2002). Anwatu (2006) opined that 75% of the private sector in Nigeria is dominated by small scale enterprises. Developing the private sector is an engine of growth and creation of wealth and employment in Nigeria.
The performance of small business enterprise in Nigeria falls below expectation (Basil, 2005 and Abiodun, 2011). This may be attributed to environmental factors. Adeoye (2012) opines that for the business to deal with the environmental dynamic nature, there is necessity to develop and put into practice suitable strategies that would preserve its operation. Thus this study assess the impact of environmental factors on performance of small business enterprises in Nigeria.
1.2. Statement of the Research Problem
The survival of small business enterprise is considered crucial in any economy in solving the problem of poverty, unemployment, crime and ensuring economic growth. There is inadequacy in the performance of small business enterprise in performing its role of economic growth, employment creation, poverty alleviation, thus there exist difficulty of small businesses achieving its desired goals.
Most business enterprise fail to consider environmental factors that affect their chances of long-term survival as a result experience a progressive decline in its ability. Environmental factors such as poor infrastructural facilities, insecurity, poor policy implementation, high tax rate, structural change among others are situated in Nigeria and thus affect the performance of small business enterprises.
In Jemok table water factory Delta state, the ability to achieve and sustain competitive advantage lies within the availability of suitable strategies that would preserve its operations. It is against this backdrop that the researcher considered the assessment of environmental factors on performance of small business enterprises: a study of Jemok table water in Delta state.
1.3. Objectives of the study
The aim of this study was the assessment of environmental factors on performance of small business enterprises: a study of Jemok table water in Delta state. The specific objectives are to:
- examine the environmental factors that affect Jemok table water Delta state.
- investigate the extent to which environmental factors affect Jemok table water Delta state.
1.4. Research Questions
This study will be guided by the following research questions:
- What are the environmental factors that affect Jemok table water Delta state?
- To what extent does environmental factors affect Jemok table water Delta state?
1.5. Significance of the Study
The critical nature of small business to the success or growth of any country is given. This is because environmental factors affect the ability of small business achieving its desired goals. This applies to manufacturing sector in general and Jemok table water in particular. As environmental factors affect the level of productivity thereby preventing the attainment of such significant goals small business play in an economy.
Empirically, this study is carried out to assess the environmental factors that affect the performance of Jemok table water so as to ameliorate the company from her low productivity problem.
This study will be important to Jemok table water as it will help guide the management of Jemok table water on how it can operate. It will teach it the importance of environmental factors and the necessary guide of strategizing in a business environment. It will also help the management get maximum value from the business.
This study will be of utmost importance to investors, government and the researchers because it will provide policy recommendations to the various Nigeria stakeholders taking adequate measures in the manufacturing industry for rapid capacity investment. It is hoped that the exploration of Jemok table water will provide a broad view of the operations of water production to investors and government. It will contribute to existing literature on the subject matter by investigating empirically the role, which environmental factors plays in small business enterprises of the country. This study will be of benefit to;
The Academia: members of the academia will find the study relevant as it will also form basis for further research and a reference tool for academic works.
Government: this study will reveal to the government happenings in small-scale business enterprises. Formulation and implementation of policies based on this findings would ensure development in the area.
Investors: this study shall also be valuable to the investors especially those who may have research interest as it shall guide their private investment decisions.
This study at the end will enlighten the management of the company on the implication of environmental factors.
1.6. Scope of the Study
This study is intended to assess the environmental factors that affect the performance of small business enterprises: a study of Jemok table water in Delta state in 2019 using the senior and junior staff workers. Jemok table water is located in km 8, Asaba-Benin express road, Benin Onitsha expressway, Oshimili south, Delta, Nigeria.
1.7. Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms have been defined operationally.
- Small business enterprise: small business enterprise is an enterprise marked by limited number of employees and a limited flow of finances and materials. This implied the finance and materials of Jemok table water.
- Business performance: efficiency and effectiveness of an organization reflected in the business objectives set by management. It include the various awards won by Jemok table water
- Business environmental factors: is the total of all external forces which affect the organization and the business operations (Kotler and Armstrong, 2004).
1.8 Organization of the Study
This study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one is introduction which consists of the background to the study, statement of problem, research questions, research hypotheses, objectives of the study, the significance of the study, the scope and limitations of the study and finally the organization of the study. Chapter two deals with the literature review which consists of the conceptual literature, theoretical literature, empirical literature, theoretical framework. Chapter three gives the research methodology including research design, population of study, sample size, sampling technique, method of data collection, instrument of data analysis, method of data analysis, validity/reliability of instrument. Chapter four is presentation and analysis of data, discussion of findings. Chapter five gives the summary, conclusion and recommendations.