- 1 CHAPTER ONE
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
|NECO||National Examination Council|
|NERDC||Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council|
|NPE||National Policy on Education|
|RD & D||Research Development and Diffusion|
Research Development and Diffusion
|SOSAN||Social Studies Association of Nigeria|
|USAID||United States Agency for International Development|
|WAEC||West African Examination Council|
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms have been operationally defined in the context of their usage in this study.
Assessment: This is the process of organizing test data into interpretable forms on a number of factors to determine the progress of a particular programme.
Curriculum: This is a planned educational programme that the learner undergoes in the school in order to attain a certain goal (certificate).
Knowledge: These are facts, information, understanding and skills acquired by a person, through experience or education.
Primary School: This is the first level a child goes before any other level of education.
Resources: These are items such as pictures, newspapers, magazines, textbooks, charts, board, etc. used by teachers to accomplish their method of teaching.
Social Studies Curriculum: a package offered to the learner in an effort to promote positive learning and acquisition of useful skills.
Curriculum Materials: Refers to the different kinds of resources, or materials or forms of media that teachers and the entire class use in the teaching – learning process so as to make it more effective.
Social Studies: Refers to the study of man and the problems of survival encountered as he interacts with his physical and social environment. It emphasizes cognitive, functional skills and desirable values and attitudes for the production of an effective and efficient citizen.
Teaching Method: Refers to the general approach to conducting a lesson.
Teaching Technique: Refers to the way the teacher specifically organizes his teaching.
1.1 Background to the Study
Social Studies Curriculum is an educational programme which embraces knowledge, values, skills, method, resources, evaluation and societal experiences offered to learners, in an effort to promote positive learning and acquisition of useful skills. The focus of Social Studies Curriculum is essentially man and the society with knowledge, values attitudes and skills for effective relationship, good citizenship and living Social Studies Curriculum offers the individual learner a rich preparation for life. This is because it incorporates all aspects of reforms and innovations in knowledge and skills expected of a people concerned with social, economic, political, scientific and technological progress.
As stated by Okam (2000), Social Studies Curriculum is keen about developing desirable socio-civic and personal behaviour of an individual. That is why it has its central task, the quest to help the young manage the physical and social forces of the world in which they live. It is such competencies that make it possible for learner to shape their lives accordingly. Considering the fact that, man is a complex organism, Social Studies deem it fit to develop suitable curriculum to take charge of all forms of behavioural act in man. Hence Social Studies is a vehicle for effective citizenship for the learner and the society.
Social Studies Curriculum is that aspect of education meant to help people learn how to get along with others in Nigeria and perhaps like other places, it has to do with the development of socio-civil and personal behaviour (Iyamu, 1998). These are expressive of the affective orientation of Social Studies in Nigeria Schools.
According to Danladi (1993), “the Social Studies has it, as a primary function, the treatment of the entire range of man‟s activities in relation to his social environment, self-realization, human relationship, economic efficiency and civic responsibility”. Conceptualization of Social Studies Curriculum as a solution to human problems in various societies and as a tool for national development cannot be over-emphasized. For instance, in Western Germany, Social Studies Curriculum was initiated as a means for healing the wounds of the Second World War, and development of a new political order. In Britain, Social Studies was introduced as a means to legitimize the teaching of Social Science while at the same time preparing learners for their roles in the society. In Sierra Leone, it was to provide ways of improving the economy after military rule, while in the United State and Canada, Social Studies Curriculum primary function is the preparation of citizens for effective citizenship in a democratic society. In Nigeria, Social Studies was introduced to inculcate the concept of nationalism, unity, good citizenship and interdependence among citizenry of the nation with diverse population (Danladi, 1993).
Thus, the implementation of Social Studies Curriculum in Nigeria schools has not been encouraging for a number of years but it is important to be given more attention because of the transmission and importance the subject has made on the school curriculum. The extents to which Social Studies programmes are improved depend to large extent on how they are evaluated. A teacher who does not evaluate his work most likely cannot hope to improve on his teaching (Danladi, 1993). In view of the foregoing, this study is aimed at assessing the implementation of social studies curriculum for effective citizenship in primary schools.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
All educational programmes, Social Studies inclusive must be constantly evaluated in order to ensure that the objectives of the programme are being achieved. Feedback mechanism with regards to ensuring whether the stated objectives are being attained or not is only possible through evaluation. Thus, evaluation is an integral part of all educational programmes. Unfortunately, instance like lack of effective evaluation in the area of textbooks, instructional material/resources, teachers of Social Studies, methods as well as inconsistencies of policies affecting Social Studies, is what characterize Social Studies programme in Nigeria in general, and Kaduna State in particular. This perhaps may have been responsible for the negative impact of social studies on the effective citizenship of pupils in the primary schools. Could these problems be attributed to the ways and manner Social Studies integrate various discipline in the area of Social Science? Or could it be as a result of non-challant attitudes on the part of government? Or could it be related to the problems associated with teaching Social Studies.
The problem of evaluation facing Social Studies programme in Nigeria in general and Kaduna State in particular is of serious concern to both learners and teachers, parents, government and non-governmental organization. According to Adeyinka (2011) some of the current problems of educational development in Nigeria are numerous but prominent among them are; education: conflict between the federal, state and local government; the prevalence of multiple system of education; diversification of the educational system; unstable curriculum and subject; the need to relate the schools‟ curricular to national manpower needs; unstable staff, the poor state of the nation‟s economy, and the financing of the educational system; politicization of education; procurement and servicing of equipment; inadequate classroom
accommodation; poorly equipped libraries, laboratories and subject rooms; scarcity and prohibitive cost of books at all level of education among others. Thus, this research study is aimed at tackling these perennial problems by assessing the implementation of social studies curriculum in primary schools; with the hope of identifying problematic areas and providing solutions to such areas identified.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this study are to:
- assess the extent to which the objectives of social studies curriculum are geared towards inculcating effective citizenship in primary school pupils in Kaduna State;
- examine the adequacy of the methods and techniques used by teachers in the implementation of social studies curriculum for effective citizenship in Kaduna State;
- evaluate the appropriateness of instructional materials used in implementing the social studies curriculum in enhancing effective citizenship in primary schools in Kaduna State;
- assess the qualification of teachers available in primary schools for the implementation of social studies curriculum for effective citizenship in Kaduna State; and
- evaluate the adequacy of the social studies curriculum contents in the production of good citizens in primary schools in Kaduna State.
1.4 Research Questions
The following are the research questions that guided the study:
- To what extent are the objectives of social studies curriculum geared towards inculcating effective citizenship in primary school pupils in Kaduna State?
- How effective are the methods and techniques used by teachers in the implementation of social studies curriculum for effective citizenship in Kaduna State?
- How appropriate are the instructional materials used in implementing the social studies curriculum in enhancing effective citizenship in primary schools in Kaduna State?
- What is the qualification of teachers available in primary schools for the implementation of social studies curriculum for effective citizenship in Kaduna State?
- How adequate is the social studies curriculum contents in the production of good citizens in primary schools in Kaduna State?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
Based on the research questions the following hypotheses were developed:
- There is no significant relationship between social studies curriculum objectives and teachers‟ inculcation of effective citizenship in primary school pupils in
- There is no significant difference between methods and techniques used by teachers in the implementation of social studies curriculum for effective citizenship in Kaduna State.
- There is no significant relationship between the appropriateness of instructional materials used in implementing the social studies curriculum in enhancing effective citizenship in primary schools in Kaduna State.
- There is no significant relationship between the qualification of social studies teachers and the implementation of social studies curriculum for effective citizenship in primary schools in Kaduna State.
- There is no significant relationship in the adequacy of social studies curriculum content and the production of good citizens in Kaduna State.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
The study made the following assumptions:
- It is assumed that the role of government and supervision does not have any impact on Social studies Curriculum Implementation for effective citizenship in primary school in Kaduna State.
- That the methods and techniques used by Social Studies teachers for lesson delivery for effective citizenship are not adequate in Kaduna State.
- That instructional materials used in teaching of Social Studies for enhancing effective citizenship in primary schools are not appropriate in Kaduna State.
- Differences exist in enhancing citizenship education between trained and untrained Social Studies teachers in primary schools in Kaduna State.
- The level of contribution of Social studies content to the production of effective citizenship in primary schools is effective in Kaduna State.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The inclusion of continuous assessment in the new educational pattern (6-3-3-4) shows the importance of evaluation. This inclusion also testifies to the high demand of accountability in education which means that the significance of an evaluation study of this nature cannot be overemphasized. Therefore, it is believed that when this work has been completed, it would be expected to be significant to different beneficiaries like curriculum expert, social studies teachers, government, curriculum planners, parents, students, school administrators and future researchers.
It is hoped that it will serve as an insight to researchers who might consult it in the process of carrying out similar studies in the future. To school administration, it is hope that they will further realize the importance role Social Studies is expected to play on the life of the Nigerian youths.
Government would also find this study useful because it will show the area where it has to come in, such as training and retraining of teachers and provision of necessary structures, resources and materials that will aid effective teaching and learning process in the Social Studies. Likewise, through this study, it is expected that government will further realized that the subject is not just a mere addition to the existing school Curriculum, but one that is crucial for the attainment of the much needed values in order to attain national development.
In the same vein, it is hoped that Social Studies Curriculum planners will benefit from the study with adequate knowledge that will be of great help when they are engaged in further review of the Curriculum. Students will benefit from this study in the sense that it will serve as a useful reference material to them and to other researchers.
The research is significant to Social Studies teachers who are expected to implement policies formulated for Social Studies programme. It is hoped that the teacher would be able to detect some of the problems militating against the achievement of some aims and objectives of Social Studies curriculum. The study will increase teachers‟ resourcefulness; dedication and commitment to work thereby making them conscious of the desire to achieve the desired behavioural changes in the learners which is the goal of the National Policy on Education. To parents, it will help erase the misconception that they have about Social Studies. Among them are those who see Social studies as learning bits of everything and not much of anything. Furthermore, the findings and recommendations of this study will contribute to the understanding of the nature and objectives of Social Studies as a problem solving discipline.
1.8 Scope of the Study
This study assessed the implementation of Social Studies curriculum for effective citizenship in primary schools in Kaduna State. The study was delimited to public primary schools in Kaduna State that partake in Social Studies programmes. The study covers 138 public primary schools; six (6) schools each was selected from each of the twenty three (23) Local Government Areas of Kaduna State with a total of 391 social studies teachers out of which seventeen (17) teachers each were randomly selected from each local government area to represent the population. Also, a total of 230 pupils that is, 10 from each of the local government areas were also selected. The variables of the study includes instructional materials, methods, teacher and effective citizenship.