This research work was carried out to assess the impact of resist techniques of fabric decoration on students‘ interest in clothing and textiles in Borno State, Nigeria. The study had four specific objectives, four research questions and four null hypotheses which were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The research design adopted for the study was quasi experimental. The population for the study was all JSS3 students that offer home economics in one hundred and eighty (180) secondary schools in both public and private. A purposive sampling technique was used to select two secondary schools, one from public, government secondary school Uba Borno and one from private, AbdulkadirBenishiek Staff School, Maiduguri. One intact class was used in each of the schools and a sample size of one hundred and eighty-eight (188) students was used for the study. The instrument used for data collection was a self-designed questionnaire.
Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the stated research questions. Two sample t-test was used to test all the null hypotheses. From the result of the study, hypotheses one, two and four were rejected, while hypothesis three was retained. The major findings from the data analysis and test of the hypotheses revealed that students who were exposed to resist techniques of fabric decoration had their interest in clothing and textiles significantly motivated when compared to their counterparts who were not exposed. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended among others that prospective students should be exposed to resist technique of fabric decoration as early as possible in the course of teaching and learning of the subject so as to motivate and sustain their interest. There is a need for career awareness and counseling at the onset of the junior secondary school such that students get acquainted with the different career opportunities before making their choice of subjects in their final examinations.
1.1 Background to the Study
Borno Stateis one of the thirty six (36) states of Nigeria, in the North Eastern part of the Country with its Capital in Maiduguri. The State like other States of Nigeria has public and private Secondary Schools. The Secondary Schools offer a variety of academic programmes, one of which is Home Economics, with Clothing and Textiles as an area of study. The Clothing and Textile Education Curriculum provides a study in resist techniques of fabric decoration to prepare students to be self-reliant and job creators rather than job seekers. Since the inception of clothing and textiles into Senior Secondary Schools level, the subject has not been taught in many Borno StateSecondary Schools. Lack of qualified Clothing teachers, inadequate instructional materials and infrastructure, gender stereotype seem to contribute to the decline in the subject and students enrolment. The effectiveness of Clothing and Textiles as a means for global survival will be compromised if the problems that plague the study of the subject in Borno StateSecondarySchools are not unveiled and tackled.
Clothing and Textiles Education is an area of study that exposes students to diversify curriculum. Arubayi (2003) viewed Clothing and Textiles as that type of education that inculcates in the students attitudes, knowledge, skills and values that are required in the society. This is a means of producing healthy, literate and self-reliant citizens that will create wealth for human development when they become self-employed thereby resulting to sustainable nation‘s development at large. According to Mberengwe (2004), Clothing and Textiles Education is primarily education for vocation. It is a training system that encourages the students to acquire skills that fit them into the world of work. Clothing and Textiles Education encompasses attitudes, knowledge and skills needed for any level of employment and advancement in broad range of clothing career.
Resist technique is a traditional method of dyeing textiles with patterns. Methods are used to resist or prevent the dye from reaching all the cloth thereby creating a pattern and ground. Potter as cited in Alheri (2014) stated that the most common forms of resist decorated fabrics in Nigeria are tie-dye such as Adire-oniko and Alabare, Batik or wax resist and the cassava paste resist method (Adire-eleko). These resist decorated fabrics are produced mostly by the Yoruba of the Southern part of Nigeria, particularly in Ibadan and Abeokuta. They are also produced in some parts of Northern Nigeria, in States such as Kaduna, Kano and Sokoto.
Design is a common term used in many endeavours such as textiles design, graphics design, engineering design, architectural design and all processes of purposeful visual creations which are coordinated together to make a meaningful whole. According to Ogunduyile (2007), design is a creative activity whose aim is to establish the multi-faceted quality of objects, processes, services and their systems in whole lifestyles. Therefore, design is the central factor of innovating humanization of technology and the crucial factors of cultural and economic exchange. Decorative design refers to decorations applied to a garment. It is not an intergral part of the type of trims, braids, embroidery, buttons that do not fasten and tucked on bows.
Interests are often defined as the focused interaction between an individual and an object (or class of objects and ideas,) that results in an enduring affective disposition or orientation towards the object(s) (Eccles and Wigfield, 2002). Individual interests are conceptualized as consisting of feeling- and value- related valences. ―Feeling- related valences refer to the feelings that are associated with an object or an activity-feeling such as involvement, stimulation, or flow. Value-
related valences refer to the attribution of personal significance or importance to an object or activity‖ (Eccles and Wigfiled, 2002).
In the context of school learning, the development, maintenance, and enhancement of positive student-academic content domain relationships is often referred to as interests.Interest improved the quality of learning and promote intrinsic motivation. Thus, academic interests should not only be considered important facilitators of academic outcomes, but also as valued Educational outcomes in their own right (Corno, 2002). According to Arubayi (2003), the students‘ interest if known would help the teachers in the Clothing and Textiles to encourage, make them realize themselves or know themselves. It would help the students to discover the areas of which they could be steadfast so as to be themselves. Attention should be given to individual students in their various areas of interest so as to stimulate them. The researcher is of the view that it is not to say that Clothing and Textiles programme is being implemented. It will be more pleasing to see what the teachers and students are doing which will reveal how much of the students interest is involved.
Since learning leads to change in behaviour, and motivation plays an active part in activating behaviour, there is a relationship between learning and motivation. Motivation refers to ―the reasons underlying behaviour‖ (Guay, Chanal, Ratelle, Marsh,Larose and Boivin 2010). Motivation is the attribute that moves us to do or not to do something. Intrinsic motivation is motivation that is animated by personal enjoyment, interest, or pleasure. As Deci, Koestner, and Ryan (1999) observe, intrinsic motivation energizes and sustains activities through the spontaneous satisfactions inherent in effective volitional action. It is manifested in behaviours such as play, exploration, and challenge seeking that people often do for external rewards. Motivated students display interest in activities, motivated teachers feel that they can help students learn and motivated administrators make possible teaching and learning in their buildings. Students‘ motivation is rooted in students‘ subjective experiences, especially those connected to their willingness to engage in lessons and learning activities and their reasons for doing so. Many researchers have examined different methods to increase students‘ motivation and have linked motivation and interest in learning to students‘ achievement in school. Increasing students‘ motivation to learn is a key to success in this day of high stakes testing, implementation of common core standards, and realization of the global economy. Students need to be able to compete with their peers throughout this country as well as other countries as far as knowledge and ability to obtain careers (Finn, 2006).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Clothing and Textiles as one of the three major areas of Home Economics has been concerned with the study of the origin of fibres, and how fibres are produced into fabrics for both personal and household uses. The other two areas of Home Economics which appear to be more of interests to students are Food and Nutrition and Home Management. Clothing along with food and shelter are some of the primary needs of mankind since the origin of man. Apart from the provision of economic self-reliance in the face of dwindling employment opportunities in the country, the importance of Clothing and Textiles to the development of individuals and groups in our society is not in doubt.
There is a dearth of interest among studentsin secondary schools across Borno Stateon the study of clothing and textiles. This lack of interest has led to the subject not being taught in manyBorno StateSecondary Schools. Presently, the enrolment and learning of clothing and textiles is very low. Attitudes of teachers associated with teaching of Home Economics and gender stereotype appear to affect students‘ enrolment in Clothing and Textiles as a subject.
Study of clothing and textiles in Borno StateSecondary Schools has therefore been a matter of serious concern to parents and stakeholders generally. Since the clothing and textiles Education was introduced into senior Secondary Schools, students lacked interest in the subject. Some Secondary Schools in Borno Statefailed to attend Clothing and Textiles course on the timetable. Clothing and textiles is omitted on the timetable and other courses are taught instead. Also school authority, teachers and students do not appear to have positive attitude towards the subject. This is in line with the West Africa Examination Council (WAEC) 2015 chief examiners‘ report during May/June Home Economics coordination, who stated that only one school offers Clothing and Textiles in the whole Borno StateSecondary Schools and that only twenty students registered for May/June Examination between 2010-2015. The reports further maintained that this has been the trend since the introduction of Clothing and Textiles into Senior Secondary Schools which is practically very low compared to Home Management and Foods and Nutrition over the years.
It was against this background that this study sought to assess the impact of resist technique of fabric decoration on students‘ interest in Clothing and Textiles in Borno State, Nigeria with the aim of enhancing better students enrolment into the course, especially when the students see items produced using resist techniques of fabric decoration that could be used for fashionable garments and home furnishings.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study was to apply resist technique of fabric decoration to see the impact on students‘ interest towards the study of Clothing and Textiles in Borno State. The specific objectives are to:
- Examine the impact of students‘ exposure to resist technique of fabric decoration on students‘ interest in clothing and textiles in Borno State Secondary Schools.
- Examine the impact of students‘ exposure to resist technique of fabric decoration on students‘ perception of career in Clothing and Textiles in Borno State Secondary Schools.
- Identify gender difference in students‘ interest exposed to resist technique of fabric decoration in the study of Clothing and Textiles in Borno StateSecondary Schools.
- Identify various ways of motivating students‘ interest in the study of Clothing and Textiles in Borno StateSecondary Schools.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the level of difference in students‘ interest who were exposed toresist technique of fabric decoration and those not exposed to resist technique of fabric decoration in Clothing and Textiles in Borno StateSecondary Schools?
- What is the impact of students‘ exposure to resist technique of fabric decoration on students‘ perception of career in Clothing and Textiles in Borno State Secondary Schools?
- What is the difference in genderon students‘ interest exposed to resist technique of fabric decoration in the study of Clothing and Textiles in Borno StateSecondary Schools.?
- What are the variousways of motivating students‘ interest in the study of Clothing and Textiles in Borno StateSecondary Schools?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were postulated to guide the study
H0 1 There is no significant difference between interests of students exposed to resist technique of fabric decoration and students not exposed to resist technique of fabric decoration in Borno StateSecondary Schools.
H0 2 There is no significant difference between perceptions of career in Clothing and Textiles by students exposed to resist technique of fabric decoration and students not exposed to resist technique of fabric decoration in Borno State Secondary Schools.
H0 3 There is no significant difference between male and female students‘ interest exposed to resist techniques of fabric decoration in the study of Clothing and Textiles in Borno StateSecondary Schools.
H0 4 There is no significant difference between students‘ exposed to resist technique of fabric decoration and students not exposed to resist technique of fabric decoration on the ways of motivating students‘ interest in Clothing and Textiles in Borno StateSecondary Schools.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will add value to behavioural modification and cognitive development; most especiallyresist techniques, interest and motivation in fabric decoration in Home Economics. The findings of this study will be significant to Home Economics teachers, students, the school, Home Economics curriculum planners, government, societies and industries.
Teachers: the findings will help teachers of Clothing and Textiles to broaden their knowledgeon what to teach when the area of students‘ interest is identified.
Students: students of Clothing and Textiles stand a better chance to reap from findings of this study as it will help them to be self-reliant, self-employed and even employers of labour through resist techniques of fabrics decoration that could be used for indoor and outdoor apparels.
The Schools: school counselors will make use of the result to counsel and encourage the interested students to continue with Clothing and Textiles Education at higher level especially when students have been exposed to resist technique of fabric decoration.
Home Economics Curriculum Planners: the study will equally be useful to Home Economics Curriculum Planners as it will help them to suggest relevant topics in Clothing and Textiles especially practical topics for skill acquisition and self-reliance.
Government: the study will benefit the Government as products of resist fabric decoration can be sold to foreign markets and also to tourists that come to the country thereby serving as economic growth of the country. It will help in creating public awareness for gender stereotype to the study of Home Economics.
The Society: the study will be of significance to the society in that resist fabric decoration can create job opportunities thereby bringing about reduction of unemployment in the communities that practice it. Culturally, Nigeria has cultures and traditions that are rich in motif and design concepts which enhance beautification and help in presentation of cultural heritage. It will be of benefit to the Ministry of Arts and Culture promotes Nigerian culture.
Industries: the study will promote the use of resist techniques of fabric decoration by the industries and will contribute positively to the growth of Nigerian industries in producing most of the soft furnishings and other items that could be used in garment construction, hotels, restaurants and offices.
1.7 Basic Assumption
The basic assumptions for this study are:
- It is assumed that resist technique of fabric decoration have impact on students‘ interest in the study of Clothing and Textiles in Borno StateSecondary Schools.
- It is assumed that resist technique of fabric decoration have impact on career opportunities for students in Clothing and Textiles in Borno State Secondary Schools.
- It is assumed that resist technique of fabric decorationcan motivate students to study Clothing and Textiles in Borno StateSecondary Schools.
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
The study was delimited to the impact of resist technique of fabric decoration on students‘ interest in Clothing and Textiles in Borno StateSecondary Schools because it was what the researcher manipulated to see its impact on students‘ interest towards the study of Clothing and Textiles. The study was also delimited to tie-dye and batik because they are the terms familiar to students at secondary school level. It was also delimited to four techniques that is stitching, stenciling, stamping and pleating because they are simple to handle by beginners. The study was delimited to JSS3 students of Government Secondary School Uba Borno and A. K. Beneshiek Staff School Maiduguri of 2016/2017 academic session because they are yet to choose from the three areas of Home Economics.