- 1 ABSTRACT
- 2 CHAPTER ONE
- 2.1 INTRODUCTION
- 2.2 1.1 Background to the Study
- 2.3 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 2.4 1.3 Objectives of the Study
- 2.5 1.4 Research Questions
- 2.6 1.5 To guide the conduct of this study, the following hypotheses were formulated;
- 2.7 1.6 Basic Assumptions
- 2.8 1.7 Significance of the Study
- 2.9 1.8 Scope of the Study
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Assessment of Implementation – This means any attempt made towards determining the extent to which a programme, curriculum, policy or teaching activity is being carried out towards achieving of the purpose for which it was designed.
Curriculum Implementation: In this study, curriculum implementation refers to translating the NCE minimum standards for Languages into action in the colleges.
Teaching Effectiveness – This refers to the extent to which the teaching and learning activities of the content of elements of NCE Hausa curriculum meet the needs, interests and ensure the achievement of the learning outcomes.
Students’ Achievement – This connotes the students‘ level of mastery of the contents of the course offered in NCE Hausa programme in the selected Colleges of education in Northwest Geopolitical zone as measured by Test of Students‘ Knowledge in Hausa (TSKH)
Students’ Attitude – Students Attitude means the dispositions, interests and enthusiasms which students put up or display in the learning of Hausa language in NCE – Awarding institutions in Northwest Geopolitical zone as measured by Students‘ Attitude to Hausa Scale (SAHS)
Instructional Materials – These refer to classroom, lecture halls, workshop rooms, equipments and tools needed for teaching and learning Hausa in Colleges of Education.
This study assessed the implementation of Nigeria Certificate in Education Hausa language curriculum in northwest geopolitical zone of Nigeria, to determine: the extent of content coverage of NCE Hausa language curriculum, determine the methods utilized by the Hausa language lecturers in the implementation of NCE Hausa language curriculum; determine the availability of instructional materials needed for implementation of Hausa language; assess the adequacy of instructional materials used for teaching NCE Hausa language in Colleges of Education; determine the utilization of instructional materials in implementation of NCE Hausa language in Colleges of Education. Seven research questions and seven hypotheses were raised based on the seven objectives of the study. Population of the study included all teachers and students offering NCE Hausa language in Colleges of Education in Northwest geopolitical zone of Nigeria numbering 196 (one hundred and ninety six) lecturers, and 10,149 (ten thousand one hundred and forty nine) students.
Multi-stage sampling techniques were used to select the sample. Stratified random sampling technique was used to sample (6) six out of the 10 (ten) Colleges of Education in northwest geopolitical zone and proportionate stratified sampling was used to draw 360 students (across levels) and 108 Teachers from both Federal and State Colleges of Education respectively. Ex-post facto research design was employed in the study. Structured questionnaire and observation schedule were used to collect data from the respondents. Reliability of the instruments was tested using Cronbach reliability coefficient and the reliability coefficients alpha level of 0.927 and 0.795 were obtained for the staff and students questionnaire respectively. One hundred and eight lecturers and three hundred and fifty eight students‘ respondents filled and returned the questionnaire.
The data were analyzed using statistical computation involving frequencies, percentages, chi-square and Mann Whitney test. Chi square statistics were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that, the contents of the NCE Hausa language curriculum were not fully covered in the Colleges of Education in Nigeria; the teaching methods mostly used for the delivery of Hausa language curriculum in Colleges of Education in Nigeria were lecture and project methods. Other methods used at a smaller scale were discussion, demonstration, laboratory, excursion and group work.Instructional materials commonly available in Colleges of Education for the teaching of Hausa language included qualified lecturers, textbooks, auditorium, and lecture theatres/classes.
Those not commonly available included language laboratories, projectors, cultural villages, and cultural rooms; the available resource/instructional materials in Colleges of Education were not adequately available for the implementation of Nigeria Certificate in Education Hausa language curriculum. The utilization of many resources/instructional materials such as language laboratories, cultural rooms and villages, videos, tape recorders, projectors, film slide/strips for the implementation of Nigeria Certificate Education Hausa language curriculum in Colleges of Education in Nigeria was low. Based on the findings, it was recommended that; Government should make NCE Hausa language lecturers sufficient in Colleges of Education in Nigeria, Lecturers should use differentiated instructional strategies to address students‘ learning needs, NCE Hausa programme should be subjected to accreditation and reaccreditation, courses should be based on the availability and adequacy of instructional materials andcurriculum developers therefore, should plan practical strategies for improving the present Hausa language curriculum. In conclusion, it is unarguably clear from the findings of this study that non availability and non-utilization of instructional materials hinder effective NCE Hausa language curriculum implementation,
1.1 Background to the Study
Hausa language is one of the best known and widely spoken languages in West Africa. It is classified as a member of the Chadic of the Afro-asiatic family of languages. More recently, the relationship of Hausa to Cushitic, Berber and Semitic (That is Arabic and Hebrew) languages was widely recognized, Greenberg, Kraft & Kirkgreen, Welmars & Newman in Yahaya, (2012). Hausa is largely and predominantly spoken in Nigeria and the Niger republic.
Sizeable Hausa speaking communities are also found in Ghana, Cameroun, Chad, Benin republic, Burkina Faso, Togo, Sudan and many of the major cities in west, north and equatorial Africa. It is estimated that eighty to one hundred million people can claim Hausa as a first language with some one hundred million nonnative speakers demonstrating varying degrees of competence in the language, Graham (1996)in Genet (2010). In fact Hausa language is the eleventh most spoken languages in the world. Hausa language is both the vehicle of knowledge, world view and the shortest route to a child‘s conception and comprehension of concepts (NCCE, 2012:65). The policy on language education in Nigeria dates back to the colonial era when the Phelps – Stokes Commission of 1922 emphasized the importance of indigenous languages in the school system. The British Advisory Committee on Native Education in tropical African recommended in 1927, that the native languages should serve as medium of instruction in the lower years of primary education. The Richard’s constitution of 1947 reinstated English as the official language in Nigeria while Hausa was recommended as an additional legislative language in northern Nigeria. In addition, the 1954 constitution recognized domestic and
regional languages. In its article 114 (1), it recommended the use of English as a national official language and as the regional official language in the south, with Hausa as the regional language of the North with the provision that when conflicts in interpretation occurred, documentation done in English language is regarded as validFafunwa, (2004:34) in Adnot & Wyckoff (2015).
In Nigeria, Hausa Language is used as the medium of instruction in the primary as set out by the Federal Government of Nigeria (FRN, 2009:4) thus: ― the medium of instruction in the primary school is initially the mother tongue (MT) or the language of the immediate community and, at a later stage English”. The National Policy on Education has also made Hausa a mandatory subject for Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSCE) forNational Examination Council (NECO), West African Examination Council (WAEC) and National Business and Technical Examination Board NABTEB along with two other Nigeria languages (Igbo and Yoruba). Therefore, according to Federal Government of Nigeria, (FRN, 2009:23), it is a core subject and therefore compulsory for senior secondary school students in the northwest geopolitical zone of Nigeria.
The objectives of teaching Hausa language in Secondary schools include among others to;
- enable candidate speak, read and write completely in Hausa and communicate effectively with their neighbors,
- familiarize them with the sound system and grammatical structures of Hausa,
- expose candidates to their culture, customs and institutions, and
- acquaint them with the necessary tools needed for creative writing and appreciation of Hausa language and literature (NERDC, 2011:6).
The philosophy for teacher production in Nigeria is anchored on five objectives of teacher education as enshrined in the Federal Republic of Nigeria, (2009). These are to: produce highly motivated, conscientious and efficient classroom teachers for all levels of our educational system; encourage further the spirit of enquiry and creativity in teachers; help teachers to fit into the social life of the community and society at large and to enhance their commitment to national objectives; provide teachers with intellectual and professional background adequate for their assignment and to make them adaptable to any changing situation not only in the life of their country but in the wider world; enhance teachers’ commitment to the teaching profession.These national objectives could be reduced into three major attributes to be achieved in the making of an effective teacherAaronson, Barrow, & Sander (2009). These are the: possession of a body of knowledge and understanding; possession of professional skills and techniques;possession of positive personal qualities.
The National policy further states that, all teachers in educational institutions shall be professionally trained. Teacher education shall be structured to equip teachers for the effective performance of their duties; since no education system may rise above the quality its teachers. The Federal Government of Nigeria, (FRN, 2009) also elaborated on the curricular and Minimum Standards for the NCE as designed and developed by the National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE). The Nigeria Certificate in Education as the minimum qualification that is required by the practicing teacher is the least sought for qualification by teachers in Nigeria. The Colleges of Education in the country offer a uniform curriculum for the trainee teachers. This therefore ensures uniformity in both standard and quality. The duration of the NCE is three years for the full-time students and five years for the part time students.
The National Commission for Colleges of Education as established by the Act (formerly Decree) 13 of 17 January 1987 (Amended Act 12 of 1993) is ‗the third leg of the tripod of excellence‘ in the regulation of higher education in Nigeria (Nigeria Certificate in Education Minimum Standards for Languages, 2012, p. iv). The agency supervises teacher education, accredits programmes and reviews the curriculum for Colleges of Education. The first production of the NCCE Minimum Standards occurred in 1990 and this entailed a study and seminar on the NCE Programmes offered in various parts of Nigeria (NCCE, 2012). In addition, the programmes were evaluated and revised. The fourth edition was produced in 2008 and was trailed by wide spread criticism. The latest edition (Specialist Minimum Standards) was produced in 2012, sequel to conferences, critiquing sessions and seminars held (Curriculum Implementation Framework, 2012). The latest review was necessary to comply with the needs of the New Basic Education Curriculum and to address the issue of the production of quality teachers in the country. The reviewed documents were the outputs of sessions aimed at establishing standards that would enhance the on the job skills of teachers. This revision has established a new structure and courses for the NCE programme (NCCE, 2014:33). The new institutional structure to guide the implementation of the curriculum consists of seven schools with different departments. The schools are: Art and Social Science, Languages, Education, Science, Vocational and Technical, Early Childhood Care and Education & Primary Education, Adult Non-Formal Education & Special New Education (NCCE, 2014:34).
The School of Languages comprises the Departments of English, French, Arabic, Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba and other Nigerian Languages or the division could be the Departments of Modern Languages and Nigerian Languages. At the helm of affairs in the schools are the Deans and the heads of department in each school. The curricular for the school of languages are embedded in a document entitled Nigeria Certificate in Education Minimum Standards for Languages.According to Nigeria Certificate in Education Minimum Standards for Languages, the objectives of teaching Hausa as L1 at the NCE level are to:
- equip the student- teachers with the basic skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing the Hausa Language.
- Prepare them adequately for the task of teaching the Hausa language at both the Primary and Junior Secondary School level.
- Expose the student-teachers to the rich socio-cultural and political lives of the speakers of the language.
- Help stimulate their creativity in the Hausa Language.
- Prepare the students for further studies in Hausa Language. Furthermore, the teacher trainees under the new curriculum would be equipped to teach Hausa Language to junior secondary students alone and not primary as stated in the previous curriculum.
The admission requirements for NCE Hausa, according to the Minimum Standards (NCCE, 2012) include among others:A Senior Secondary Certificate (SSC) NECO or GCE O‘ level with passes in 4 subjects including English Language, three of which must be at credit level at one sitting or four credits at two sittings. Two of the credits must be relevant to the course the candidate wishes to offer; A Grade II Teachers Certificate (TC II) or Senior Islamic School Certificate (SISC) with credit or merit in three subjects, two of which must be relevant to the course the candidate wishes to offer. One Credit/Merit in English language and/or Mathematics may be required in some courses; and Successful candidates in Pre-NCE final examinations who also take and succeed in a selection examination organized by an accredited body are qualified for admission (p.66).
The implementation Framework (2012) stipulates that results of continuous assessments be handed in within four weeks, while for examinations, should be within eight weeks. It also labels assessment as ‗pivotal‘. The reform provides that an internal quality assurance unit be established in each school for monitoring, collation and storage of data on assessment. The Minimum Standards prescribes examination and continuous assessment should be 60:40 ratios (Implementation Framework, 2012, p. 18).
The content of the Hausa Language curriculum at pre-NCE and NCE levels cover four main areas i.e. Language, Literature, Culture and Hausa Teaching Methodology. The minimum number of lecturers required is 1:25. Teaching personnel versed in each of these four areas must possess at least B.A., B.A. Ed second-class lower division. In addition, all academic staff must be computer literate (NCCE, 2012:67).
Various factors influence Hausa Language curriculum implementation. Some of which include; Hausa Lecturers/Teachers; Students; Teaching Resources; Institutions‘ instructional materials; institution/School Environment; Availability of Funds and the state of the Nation‘s Economy.In addition, the challenges of implementing Hausa curriculum in Nigerian colleges of education are synonymous with the problems of Nigeria and also that of general education in Nigeria. Egwu (2009), posited that some of the major challenges of the Teacher education system includes;Inadequate and obsolete instructional materials and equipment, for example poor workshop and libraries, dilapidated classroom blocks; inadequate capacity in the institutions for internal/peer quality assessment; Weak support structure for students Teaching practice (TP); Brain drain, human capital flight; High incidence of cultism, examination malpractice and social and academic vices; Unstable academic calendar; Staff shortages across board; Unattractive conditions of service for teachers and Inadequate funding of colleges of education.
The new Nigeria Certificate in Education Minimum Standards for Hausa Language, whose implementation has commenced in all Colleges of Education in Nigeria, has thrown up a big challenge to teacher educators in the nation’s Colleges of Education and Polytechnics as they have to review their teacher preparation programmes in the context of knowledge of subject matter, teaching skills and competencies. This is necessary for them to be able to produce Hausa secondary school teachers who can effectively teach the subjects. In specific terms, the updating of teacher education programme is more felt in preparing teachers to teach the subject effectively.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Curriculum implementation is an important segment of teaching learning process. It has to do with the translation of the curriculum into action. This exercise of the curriculum requires personnel, facilities, instructional materials, good administration and teaching methods among other things needed for curriculum implementation. (NCCE, 2012:65). Recently the efforts of the governments and Colleges‘ management towards the implementation of the new Hausa curriculum for the Colleges of education have yielded little or no dividends due to issues which are inherent in the implementation of the curriculum. These problems include under funding,non-availability of instructional materials, inadequate classrooms, obsolete instructional materials and non-utilizationof teaching and learning facilities, lack of qualified teachers/lectures, amongst others.
This resulted producing of half-baked NCE teachers and public noticed and expressed concern on the competency of teachers trained to teach Hausa language in secondary schools. And this in turnwill affect not only Hausa language education will no doubt hamper the educational development in the country. This prompted the researcher to undertake the study.The study therefore, takes a critical look at the challenges of implementing the new Hausa languages curriculum in
Colleges of Education in the north-west zone of Nigeria which comprises of Kaduna, Katsina, Kano, Jigawa, Sokoto, Zamfara and Kebbi State.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study was set to achieve the following objectives to:
- examine the extent to which Hausa language curriculum is being implemented in Colleges of Education in Nigeria.
- determine the methods utilized by the Hausa language lecturers in delivering of Hausa language curriculum in Colleges of Education in Nigeria.
- investigate the availability of instructional materials for the implementation of NigeriaCertificate of Education Hausa language curriculum in Colleges in Nigeria
- assess the adequacy of instructional materials for the implementation of Hausa languagecurriculum in Colleges of Education in Nigeria.
- determine the utilization of instructional materials by the Hausa language lecturers in Colleges of Education in Nigeria.
- find out the lesson preparation techniques used byHausa language lecturers in the implementation of Hausa language curriculum in colleges of education in Nigeria.
- investigate differences that exist in the implementation of Hausa language curriculum in federal and state Colleges of Education in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
The study sought to answer the following research questions:
- To what extent is Hausa language curriculum in Colleges of Education in Nigeria being implemented?
- What are the methods utilized by the Hausa language lecturers in the delivery of Hausa language curriculumin Colleges of Education in Nigeria?
- To what extent are the required instructional materials available for the implementation of Hausa language curriculum in the Colleges of Education in the Nigeria?
- How adequate are the instructional materials for the implementation of Hausa language curriculum in Colleges of education in Nigeria?
- To what extent are the available instructional materialsfor implementation of Hausalanguage curriculum in the Colleges of Education in Nigeriautilized?
- What are the lesson preparation techniques used by the Hausa language lecturers in the implementation of Hausa language curriculum in Colleges of Education in the Nigeria?
- What differences exist between Federal and States Colleges of Education in the implementation of Hausa Language curriculum in Nigeria?
1.5 To guide the conduct of this study, the following hypotheses were formulated;
- There is no significant difference in the responses of respondents (students and lecturers)on the extentof implementation of Hausa language curriculum in Colleges of Education in Nigeria
- There is no significant difference in the responses of the respondents on the strategies utilized by the Hausa language lecturers in the implementation of Hausa language curriculum in Colleges of Education in Nigeria.
- There is no significant difference in the responses of the respondents on the availability of instructional materials for the implementation of Hausa language curriculum in Colleges of Education in Nigeria.
- There is no significant difference in the responses of the respondents on the adequacy of instructional materials for the implementation of Hausa language curriculum in Colleges of Education in Nigeria.
- There is no significant difference in the responses of the respondents on the utilization of instructional materials for implementation of Hausa language
curriculum in Colleges of Education in Nigeria.
- There is no significant difference in the preparation techniques used by the lecturers in Federal and State Colleges of Education.
- There is no significant difference in the implementation of Hausa language curriculum in Federal and States Colleges of Education in Nigeria.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
The followings are the basic assumptions of the study.
- It is assumed that the researcher‘s target population will answer/respond truthfully to the content of the instruments.
- Teachers and administrators would be willing to share with the researcher the assessment of the implementation of NCE Hausa language curriculum in the colleges of education.
1.7 Significance of the Study
This study provides detailed information about the implementation process of new Hausa curriculum in Colleges of Education in Nigeria. The beneficiaries of the research include;
Teachers, stakeholders in education, Federal and State Ministries of Education, Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC), and National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE). Other beneficiaries will include; Curriculum Planners, College managements (Provost, Deans and Head of Departments), the nation, Researchers as well as the community or the society in general
To teachers, it will help to visualize how curriculum developers‘ decisions are interpreted and practiced by teachers/lectures in classrooms. The rich information/literatures collected through the survey questionnaire willhelp teachers/lecturers to identify the process of implementation. In turn, what does or does not get implemented in the curriculum can be determined and the reasons for the differences between intended and implemented Hausa Languagecurriculum can be recognized.
The findings will also help to identify the practical problems faced by teachers/lectures in implementing Hausa Language curriculum. When taken into consideration, the results of this study will help teachers/lectures to improve their performance and instructional practices, and can be used as a reference study in Hausa Language teaching.
To stakeholders in education, this valuable information in turn can help decision maker/stakeholders at colleges and national levels to develop better designed curriculum materials and make further progress in the Hausa language curriculum design. Policy makers in education would find the results useful as they would have first-hand information about the extent to which NCE Minimum Standards for languages (Hausa)(2012) are achieving the purpose for which they was designed. This would in turn help them make functional and rational decisions on better way of implementing the curriculum, as well as, make revision as necessary as possible in the NCE Minimum Standards.
Above all, the Federal and state Ministries of Education as well as the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) will find the result of this study valuable particularly in the current government efforts toward the implementation of the new 9-year Basic Education Curriculum. It will also benefit policy makers such as; National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE), as the guardian, supervisor and inspector of Colleges of Education in Nigeria. The finding of this study will give appropriate guide to make appropriate review and modification whenthe need arises. The finding of the study will provide a useful insight on whether to make more provision on the entire instructional facilities and resources necessary for teaching Hausa language. In fact, the study will be of great importance to policy makers because the finding of the study will help them (policy makers) to have detail information on the availability or otherwise of the necessary instructional facilities necessary for the actual implementation of the Nigeria Certificate in Education Hausa language curriculum.
And for states and federal government, the finding of this study will help them to make real and practical preparation to effectively implement the Nigeria Certificate in Education Hausa language curriculum which in the final analysis will help the colleges of education to produce qualitative pre-service teachers that will fulfil the basic requirement of EFA and MDG. This would in turn help them make functional and rational decisions on better ways of implementing the curriculum, as well as, make revision required in the NCE Minimum Standards. Curriculum Planners will have a true picture of the new NCCE minimum standard curriculum implementation; its strengths and weaknesses so that necessary modification will be made.
For the School Heads (Provost, Deans and Head of Departments), the findings of the study will vividly provide a highlight about the actual situation their instructional materials are in, whether they will need more provision or training of the necessary personnel to handle these instructional facilities (language laboratory, projector, computers, cameras, internet facilities and so on).
Similarly, findings from the study would be beneficial to the nation as a whole in meeting its aspirations for achieving EFA and MDGs on basic education through production of quality pre-service teachers (NCE). This is to the extent that the teachers in training become capable of effectively delivering Hausa Language instruction when they eventually get on the job and when they are confronted with situations in the school setting. The finding of the study will provide clear picture of the curriculum implementation for consultation. It is hoped that if the findings of the study are put into practice, there will be optimum production of qualitative pre-service teachers who will help to satisfy basic requirements of the EFA and MDG, and move the nation forward.
The findings of this study would form a basis for further research in which the curriculum implementation process. Educational Researchers would also find the literature very useful as it will provoke more need for further studies. The information obtained in this study will be very useful in updating the knowledge of the lecturers and researchers as it will be a reference material for consultation in their future studies especially on curriculum implementation.
The community or the society in general will find the findings of this study useful as it is hoped that the findings would provide a critical diagnosis of challenges of curriculum implementation and the suggestions will provide a lead to use in the final analysis to produce teachers that will effectively tackle the challenges of the changing time.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study examined the implementation of Hausa Language curriculum in Federal and States Colleges of Education. It covered Colleges of Education (COEs) in the North-west Geopolitical zone, Nigeria. The states in the zone include Kaduna, Katsina, Kano, Jigawa, Sokoto, Zamfara and Kebbi. Students and lecturers in the Colleges of Education in those states were the target population of the study. In addition, the following key variables were covered: status of Hausa curriculum implementation in Colleges of Education, strategies adopted in the implementation of the curriculum, students and lecturers‘ perception on the Hausa language curriculum implementation, students learning outcomes in terms of academic achievements and obstacles to effective implementation of Hausa language curriculum in Colleges of Education in Nigeria with a particular emphasis to north-west geopolitical zone.