- 0.1 CHAPTER ONE
- 1 CHAPTER TWO
Man in search of comfort struggle to meet up with good career and for this to be achieved, it has to be started as early as possible. From the time man is born, expectations abound to know what likely he will be able to do as he grows up. This has to do with his natural behavior and mental exercise display. This continues in family/parents and other relaxation acting as counselling unit until the child goes in to school. In school the teacher takes over the counselling, it is a continuous exercise until one finds one‟s feet, then he can continue from there and equally be in a position to guide and counsel others. The stages where much work is carried out on counseling is in secondary schools. This is a stage when a child is grown to be able to understand maturely and when the child‟s attitude is fully studied in line with academic performance . In all secondary school across the country , there exist a guidance and counselor office where people knowledgeable in the area of psychology are employed in order to help advise the younger ones in school which way forward to their future career . There people through class visitation, Observing students during recreation and calling on them at intervals for questioning, came to know the students betters and be able to guide and counsel them in their future career probably in university or in any other area of endeavour.
The job of counselling in secondary school is not an easy job to be taking into consideration the number students involved with respect to the number of staff involved. It is always very difficult to handle all the students and to remember everything about the students. This Counselling exercise needs a sophisticated system for the operation of counselling alliterates some of the problem associated with exercise.
Personal behaviour and area of interest, they keep very close marks with the students to make sure that no stone is left unturned. This aspect of one‟s life is taken very seriously in schools because that is mainly the reason people go to school for the academics tests and examination only. The battle of career choice is handed over to individual when he/she attain a stage of being able to duct for himself what he/she really wants and how best possible to get such height. The person can steer the wheels directly to his destination or deviate in the other way due to carelessness or youthful exuberance; but the end justifies the means. Sometimes, due to laxity and incapability on the side of the career guidance and counsellor in schools, most of the students are led astray. Hoyfield (1997) argues that a good career in life, makes a lot of meaningful process in life. He queried „‟what is comfort and where comfort without a good career‟‟. In his own views, it takes a long and rough way to arrive and clinch a good career but when one finally gets to it, life comes to be what nature made it be. He made it clear and that life is associated with a good career and that such a career is what can give full meaning of life a priceless gift of nature. Statistics shows that people who find good career are enjoying high standard of living and the unlucky ones cry of frustration and negatives social factors that limits life.
1.1 Statement Of The Problem
The number of students involved in schools counselling are very enormous and few staff in counselling cannot handle the job effectively. It is always very easy to forget information about students and to reach all the students, contributes and problems. Another major problem of the counselling is information storage. The made of storage of information observed from the students in different forms is not reliable and this makes the counselling to apply guess work in trying to direct students in their future career work. This is a very big delay in taking decision on students concerning their future career. This is also because referencing to students information for decision making takes a very long time.
The primary aim of this projects work is to provide lasting solution to the problem affecting counselling exercise in secondary schools. The following objectives below are the study
- To make the criteria and process involved in the exercise of counselling very easy and flexible
- To carefully take care of the burden, the staff faces in trying to do the work of counseling manually.
- To provide adequate enabling environment for counselling on student to give them better career perspective
- To maintain adequate observed information on students for future reference and quick decision taking.
1.3 Purpose Of The Study
The purpose of this project work is to probe into the developing a counselling software for schools with a view of creating awareness of the use computer in counselling with due consideration of this new technology advancement.
1.4 Significance Of The Study
This study is of numerous important to the guidance and counselor department and the society in general in different ways:
- It will help the counselor to always direct the students in their best career area with happiness because it will be result oriented.
- It will also help to eliminate the word frustration among the people which is very common in the society.
- It will ease of the stress of the counsellor using his/her brain trying to store information about different students in their large number and each student‟s area of interest he/she is fit for.
- Using an automated system in this situation would be very efficient especially in information storage.
1.5 Scope/ Delimitation Of The Study
The study covers the design and implementation of computerized career choice counselling system in secondary schools.
1.6 Constraints / Limitations
The major constraints identified in the course of this work are as follows:
- There are many secondary schools in primitive/rural areas that have little or no technological facilities in the school. Implementation of this system in such a situation becomes a problem.
- There may also be staff in the school who do not have knowledge on proper usage of computer. If such staff works in the guidance and counselling unit, it would be cumbersome for him/her to operate the computerized system. Recommended solution to these problems is that there should be a room for proper training of personnel who cannot operate computers properly. Also,
government should help provide technological facilities in those schools in the rural areas that have little or no level of technology.
1.7 Definition Of Terms
COUNSELLING: To give advise to another
SOCIETY :This is an organized group of people living together and having things together
AUTOMATED: Less independent of human direction and utilizes techniques of automation.
PROMPT: To motivate an action
SYSTEM: A combination of parts organized in a whole working together to achieve a common purpose
PSYCHOLOGY: The study of mind and it‟s function
DATA: This is a raw and unprocessed facts and figures obtained from experiments, research, surveys etc. used to develop something or make decision.
RECORD: To write down event so that it can be remember
COMPUTER : This is an electronic device that accept raw facts as data and processes it to give useful information.
INFORMATION: Data that has been processed.
REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE
2.1 Vocational Development and Career Counselling
Career development theories propose vocational models that include changes throughout the lifespan. Super’s model proposes a lifelong five-stage career development process. The stages are growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance, and disengagement. Throughout life, people have many roles that may differ in terms of importance and meaning. Gottfredson proposed a cognitive career decision-making process that develops through the lifespan. The initial stage of career development is hypothesized to be the development of self-image in childhood, as the range of possible roles narrows using criteria such as sex-type, social class, and prestige. During and after adolescence, people take abstract concepts into consideration, such as interests.
Career counselling may include provision of occupational information, modelling skills, written exercises, and exploration of career goals and plans, Rahardja (2008). Career counselling can also involve the use of personality or
career interest assessments, such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, which is based on Carl Jung’s theory of psychological type, or the Strong Interest Inventory, which makes use of Holland’s theory. Assessments of skills, abilities, and values are also commonly assessed in career counselling.
2.2 Training and supervision
Counselling psychology includes the study and practice of counselor training and supervision. As researchers, counselling psychologists may investigate what makes training and supervision effective. As practitioners, counselling psychologists may supervise and train a variety of clinicians. Counselor training tends to occur in formal classes and training programs. Part of counsellor training may involve counselling clients under the supervision of a licensed clinician. Supervision can also occur between licensed clinicians, as a way to improve clinicians’ quality of work and competence with various types of counselling Clients.
As the field of counselling psychology formed in the mid-20th century,
initial training models included Human Relations Training by Carkuff,
Interpersonal Process Recall by Kagan, and Micro counselling Skills by Ivey.
Modern training models include Egan’s Skilled Helper model, and Hill’s three stage (exploration, insight, and action) model. A recent analysis of studies on counsellor training found that modelling, instruction, and feedback are common to most training models, and seem to have medium to large effects on trainees, Hill (2006).
Problems can arise in supervision and training. First, supervisors are liable for malpractice of their supervisee. Also, questions have arisen as far as a supervisor’s need for formal training to be a competent supervisor, Westefeld (2009). Recent research suggests that conflicting, multiple relationships can occur between supervisors and supervisees, such as that of evaluator, instructor, and clinical supervisor, Westefeld (2009). The occurrence of racial micro-aggressions against Black supervisees suggests potential problems with racial bias in supervision, Constantine (2007). In general, conflicts between a counsellor and his or her supervisor can arise when supervisors demonstrate disrespect, lack of support, and blaming (Ladany & Inman, 2008).
2.3 Counseling psychology
Counselling psychology is a psychological specialty that encompasses research and applied work in several broad domains: counselling process and outcome; supervision and training; career development and counselling; and prevention and health. Some unifying themes among counselling psychologists include a focus on assets and strengths, person–environment interactions,
educational and career development, brief interactions, and a focus on intact personalities, Gelso (2001).
In the U.S., counselling psychology programs are accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA), while counselling programs are accredited through the Counsel for Accreditation of Counselling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP). In all 50 states, counsellors can be licensed at the master‟s degree level, once meeting the state and national criteria. To become
licensed as a counselling psychologist, one must meet the criteria for licensure as a psychologist (4-7 year doctoral degree post-bachelors, 1 year full-time internship, including 3,000 hours of supervised experience and exams). Both doctoral level counselling psychologists and doctoral level counsellors can perform applied work, as well as research and teaching. Counselling psychology, like many modern psychology specialities, started as a result of World War II. During the war, the U.S. military had a strong need for vocational placement and training. In the 1940s and 1950s the Veterans Administration created a specialty called “counselling psychology,” and Division (now known as the Society for Counselling Psychology) of the APA was formed, Heppner (2008). This fostered interest in counsellor training, and the creation of the first few counselling psychology PhD programs. The first counselling psychology PhD programs were at the University of Minnesota; Ohio State University, University of Maryland, College Park; University of Missouri; Teachers College, Columbia University; and University of Texas at Austin.
The relationship between a counsellor and client is the feelings and attitudes that a client and therapist have towards one another, and the manner in which those feelings and attitudes are expressed, Greenson (1967). The relationship may be thought of in three parts: transference/countertransference, working alliance, and the real- or personal-relationship, Greenson (1967).
2.4 Career Counseling
Counselling and career coaching are similar in nature to traditional counselling. However, the focus is generally on issues such as career exploration, career change, personal career development and other career related issues. Typically when people come for career counselling they know exactly what they want to get out of the process, but are unsure about how it may work. In the UK,
career counselling would usually be referred to as careers advice or guidance. Career counselling is the process of helping the candidates to select a course of study that may help them to get into job or make them employable. A career counsellor helps candidates to get into a career that is suited to their aptitude, personality, interest and skills. So it is the process of making an effective
correlation between the internal psychology of a candidate with the external factors of employability and courses. Career counsellors work with people from various walks of life, such as
adolescents seeking to explore career options, or experienced professionals contemplating a career change. Career counsellors typically have a background in vocational psychology or industrial/organizational psychology. The approach of career counselling varies, but will generally include the completion of one or more assessments.
One of the major challenges associated with career counselling is encouraging participants to engage with it. For example in the UK 70% of people under 14 say they have had no careers advice while 45% of people over 14 have had no or very poor/limited advice, Parcover (1998).
In a related issue some client groups tend to reject the interventions made by professional career counsellors preferring to rely on the advice of peers or superiors within their own profession. Jackson et al. found that 44% of doctors in training felt that senior members of their own profession were best placed to give careers advice, Galassi (1992). Furthermore it is recognised that the giving of career advice is something that is widely spread through a range of formal and informal roles. In addition to career counsellors it is also common for teachers, managers, trainers and Human Resources (HR) specialists to give formal support in career choices. Similarly it is also common for people to seek informal support from friends and family around their career choices and to bypass career professionals altogether. Today people rely on career web portals to seek advice on resume writing and handling interviews; as also to research on various professions
and companies. It has even become possible to take vocational assessments online . Frank Parson’s Choosing a Vocation (1909) was perhaps the first major work which is concerned with careers guidance. There are lots of career guidance and counselling centres all over the world. They give services of guidance and counselling on higher studies, possibilities,
chances and nature of courses and institutes. An objective form of career counselling is through an aptitude test, or a career test. Career testing is now usually done online and provides insightful and objective information about which jobs may be suitable for the test taker based on combination of their interests, values and skills. Career tests usually provide a list of recommended jobs that match the test takers attributes with those of people with similar personalities who enjoy/are successful at their jobs.
2.5 Factors affecting admission
Whether to admit an applicant to a course is entirely the decision of each individual university. They will base their decision on a variety of factors, but primarily the grades predicted or already received in school leaver examinations. As more and more applicants are attaining higher and higher grades in the A level examinations, most universities also use secondary admissions criteria. These may include results at GCSE or Standard grade examinations (or equivalent), the references provided on the application and the information provided on the personal statement. The personal statement can often be the deciding factor between two similar candidates so a small industry has sprung up offering false personal statements for a fee. UCAS uses “similarity detection” software to detect personal statements that have been written by third parties or copied from other sources, and universities can reject applications for this reason.
The personal statements generally describe why the applicant wants to study the subject they have applied for, what makes them suitable to study that subject, what makes them suitable to study at degree level generally, any relevant work experience they have gained, their extracurricular activities and any other relevant factors. This is the only way admissions tutors can normally get an impression of what a candidate is really like and assess the applicant’s commitment to the subject. In addition to the information provided on the UCAS form, some universities ask candidates to attend an interview. Oxford and Cambridge almost always interview applicants, unless, based on the UCAS form and/or admissions tests, they do not believe the applicant has any chance of admission. Other universities may choose to interview, though only in some subjects and on a much smaller scale, having already filtered out the majority of candidates. The interview gives the admissions tutors another chance to assess the candidate’s suitability for the course. Universities are increasingly being put under pressure from central Government to admit people from a wider range of social backgrounds. Social background can only be assessed by the type of school attended, as no information about income or background is otherwise required on the UCAS form.
Another important determinant of whether an offer is to be made is the amount of competition for admission to that course. The more competitive the course, the less likely an offer will be made and, therefore, the stronger the application must be. Applicants for medicine are often expected to have undertaken extensive work experience in a relevant field in order to show their commitment to the course. For the most competitive courses, less than 10% of applications may result in admission, whereas at the less competitive universities, practically all applicants may receive an offer of admission. Ultimately, however, no matter how many extra-curricular activities and work experience have been undertaken, if the admissions tutor does not believe, based on the submitted exam results, the candidate is academically capable of
2.6 Data and Information System
The concepts of data and information are very important in understanding issues that go with development and implementation of a computer-based information system. The term „data‟ and „information‟ are used interchangeably in everyday conversation as meaning the same thing. To many managers and information specialists, however, these terms have distinct meanings. According to O‟Leary (1996:22), data simply consists of raw, unprocessed facts while information is data that have been processed by the computer to be useful to the recipient.
Data are facts obtained by observation, counting, measuring, weighing, etc., which are then recorded. Frequently, they are called raw or basic data and are often records of day-to-day ransactions of the organisation. The concept of information in an organisation sense is more complex and difficult than the frequent use of this common word would suggest. The literature
emphasised that information is data that have been processed, transmitted to the recipient, interpreted and understood by the recipient. Here it should be noted that the user, not just the sender is involved in the transformation of data into information. There is a process of thought and understanding involved and it follows that a given message can have different meanings to different people. summarised, or processed in some other fashion to produce a message or report which is conveniently deemed „management information‟ only becomes information if it is understood by the recipient. Therefore, it is the user who determines whether a report contains information or just processed data.
Information Technology has been an integral part of academic system since almost four decades. Since the arrival of Internet technology, school system has taken a new shape and style with a blend of convenience and satisfaction. Learning from a student‟s bedroom, office or anywhere in the World has made its way into university system with the advent of Internet technology. Information technology has always helped the university system to educate students in better way. To explain few examples, student online clearance is a method where the student
obtains his/her clearance letter without carrying files around. This is only possible with the help of information technology. This feature is safe, fast and has no hazels. Filling out the documents and comparing options and waiting for approval is a time consuming process. Through the Internet, this process is made much easier and sometimes the approval is made within minutes. This explains an efficient way of obtaining clearance and saves time and money for students.