- 1 CHAPTER ONE
- 1.1 1.1 INTRODUCTION
- 1.2 1.2 BACKGROUND
- 1.3 1.3 Statement of Problem:
- 1.4 1.4 Purpose of study:
- 1.5 1.5 Research Methodology:
- 1.6 1.6 Objective of study:
- 1.7 1.7 Significance of study:
- 1.8 1.8 Scope of the study:
- 1.9 1.9 Limitations of the study:
A Geographical Information System (GIS) is a system of hardware, software and procedures to facilitate the management, manipulation, analysis, modeling, representation and display of geo‐referenced data to solve complex problems regarding planning and management of resources. Functions of GIS include data entry, data display, data management, information retrieval and analysis. The applications of GIS include mapping locations, quantities and densities, finding distances and mapping and monitoring change. There are mainly three categories of geographic positioning systems to determine or track a user’s location, which have been designed and proposed over the years. These systems are mainly three categories:
- Global Positioning System, Wide-area Location System and Indoor Positioning System. Global Positioning System (GPS) receives signals from multiple satellites to determine the physical location of a user.
- The limitation for this system is that it is inefficient for indoor use; alongside in urban areas it often possesses difficulties in receiving signals where high buildings shield the satellite signals.
- Wide-area location systems are mainly based on cellular networks that involve measuring the signal strength, the angle of signal arrival and/or the time difference of signal arrival. The positioning information in wide-area location systems is highly limited by the cell size or cell coverage.
Several approaches have been proposed for indoor location sensing or indoor positioning system such as infrared sensing, radio frequency, ultrasonic and scene capture analysis. There are also a few technologies to use within indoor areas, such as GPS psudo lite, ultrasonic and cellular-based systems, which need considerable supporting devices and facilities. Each of these methods has their own advantages and disadvantages. Some are expensive to implement, while others are not very accurate. The Active Badge is the first location system. Radar, well-known approach, is an RF (Radio Frequency) system for locating and tracking users within large structures. The approach is an empirical method and a signal propagation model. This procedure determines user location by combining signal strength measurements with signal propagation models. RF signal strength within building is affected by multipath propagation effects and absorption, resulting in non-linear behavior. The results show that the empirical method is superior in terms of accuracy with median resolution in the range of about 3m and the signal propagation model has 4.3m accuracy (median), but it makes deployment easier. The applications of indoor positioning are many, for instance, location-finding, indoor robots, inventory tracking, security, etc.
Geographic Information (GI) represents information that can be associated to a location on Earth, information about nature phenomena, natural, cultural and human resources in general. A GIS (Geographic Information System) represents an ensemble of hardware-software for capturing stocking, validating, managing, analyzing and visualizing data that have a geographic reference.
Application of Remote Sensing and GIS
Function of an Information system is to improve one’s ability to make decisions. An Information system is a chain of operations starting from planning the observation and collection of data, to store and analysis of the data, to the use of the derived information in some decision making process. A GIS is an information system that is designed to work with data referenced to spatial or geographic coordinates. GIS is both a database system with specific capabilities for spatially referenced data, as well as a set of operation for working with data. There are three basic types of GIS applications which might also represent stages of development of a single GIS application.
Many times the first step in developing a GIS application is making an inventory of the features for a given geographic area. These features are represented in GIS as layers or themes of data. The emphasis at this stage of application development consists of updating and simple data retrieval.
Upon completion of the inventory stage, complex queries on multiple layers can be performed using spatial and spatial analysis techniques.
More advanced spatial and modeling techniques are required to support the decisions of managers and policy makers. This involves shifting of emphasis from basic geographic data handling to manipulation, analysis and modeling in order to solve real world problems.
Uses of Coastal GIS Packages
- Retrieval of information of any specific site.
- Provision of summary data for planning purpose.
- Graphical display for educational and public relation exercise.
- Classification of coasts and management zone.
- Predicting modeling to determine.
A. Projections of coastal changes.
B. Impacts of individual schemes.
C. Impacts from changes of use.
D. Impacts from natural calamities.
1.3 Statement of Problem:
The application of GIS is so enormous that it is only limited to the mindset of the administrators and users. This project therefore focuses on the visualization and manipulation of geospatial information to support decision making in urban development and other areas the GIS can be applied.
1.4 Purpose of study:
The purpose of this project is to support decision making with the use of geospatial information. With the help of a GIS you will have at your disposal the necessary instruments to analyze:
- The selection and analysis of the location;
- The profile, the dividing and the prospecting of the customers;
- The potential of new marketing.
- Potential crime area
- Topology and so on.
1.5 Research Methodology:
Hybrid method (quantitative and qualitative method) as both literature and text was used, interviews and direct observation of the subject matter.
1.6 Objective of study:
The main aim of the objective is to design and implement location retrieval system which will help To provide GIS for geospatial information visualization To provide goe-data manipulation via a web interface. Support decision making in urban businesses Support erosion control, business site.
1.7 Significance of study:
To provide the thematic map of the major business areas in the state capital Awka.
1.8 Scope of the study:
This research work is to design software that will enable people or strangers in awka to locate places using a map, such as street, estate, house numbers, schools, police station etc through the use of location retrieval system using php and data.
1.9 Limitations of the study:
- One of the limitations of the project is time as the researchers have to combine lectures with other activities involve in the course to obtain a degree in CARITAS UNIVERSITY.
- 2. The other limitation is literature as the topic is relatively new not too many materials are readily available for review.