- 1 ABSTRACT
- 2 CHAPTER ONE
- 3 CHAPTER TWO
- 3.1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE
- 3.2 CLASSIFICATION OF SUGAR
- 3.3 ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS
This research investigated how the sweetness of sugar substitute compares to the sweetness of sugar. In this research different percentage solution of sugar, artificial sweetener and natural sweetener (10%, 1%, 0.1% and 0.01%) were prepared. Ten volunteers were gathered for the sensory evaluation in this case tasting of the solution, the volunteer‟s taste threshold of data was gotten. The artificial sweetener was found out to be the sweetest among the substances experimented and at the percentage of 0.1% and 0.01% saccharin an artificial sweetener was able to mimic the taste of sugar. Research prove that artificial sweetener are non-nutritive they have virtually no calories in contrast to sugar which contains 4 calories at each gram, a teaspoon of sugar is about 4 grams, for weight lose artificial sweetener may be an attractive option to sugar. Artificial sweetener may also be a good alternative for diabetic patient, unlike sugar; artificial sweeteners generally don‟t raise blood sugar levels because they are not carbohydrates.
A sugar substitute is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, usually with less food energy. Some sugar substitutes are natural and some are synthetic. Those that are not natural are in general, called artificial sweeteners. Artificial sweeteners and other sugar substitutes are found in a variety of food and beverages marketed as sugar free or diet including soft drinks, chewing gum, jellies, baked goods, candy, fruit juice and ice-cream and yoghurt. [Whitney 2011]
People may not all like the same kind of baked treats but one thing we all agree on is that baked treats should be sweets usually, sugar is used to lend sweetness to foods but would cake taste just as good if the baker used a sugar substitutes instead of sugar? Many people prefer not to use sugar often due to health reasons and instead depend on sugar substitutes to sweeten their foods. But are sugar substitutes the same as sugar? What exactly are the differences between sugar and sugar substitutes?
Sugar also known as sucrose comes from plants like sugar cane and sugar beets and is a carbohydrate. Sugar adds bulk to cakes, cookies and all kinds of treats; sugar also causes browning and caramelizing in foods when it is heated as when cookies turn golden brown in the oven sugar is a natural substance, something that our bodies can use for energy.
Sugar substitutes come in three categories; artificial sweeteners, sugar alcohols and natural sweeteners. Artificialsweeteners are attractive because they add almost no calories to foods and are sometimes a part of weight loss programs. Also they donot increase blood sugar levels which mean that diabetics can use them. Many artificial sweeteners like sucralose were discovered by accident in the laboratory. In 1976, a scientist in England was studying different compounds made from sugar. The scientist asked a student to test the compounds but instead the student tested them. Another category of sugar substitutes is sugar alcohols. Sugar alcohols are not alcoholic beverages they do not contain ethanol which is found in alcoholic beverages. Sugar alcohols like sugar have calories and energy but not asmuch as sugar. Sugar alcohols like artificial sweeteners do not contribute to tooth decay and affect blood sugar levels slowly so diabetics can use them. Although sugar alcohols like xylitol, sorbitol and erythritol are manufactured products the sources are often natural.
The last category of sugar substitutes is called natural substitutes. The categories include maple syrup, agave nectar and honey. These substances
are absorbed by our digestive system and contain calories and nutrients that our bodies can use. [Michelle 2002]
The chart lists some popular sugar substitutes and how they‟re commonly categorized:
|(sunett,sweet||(pure via, truvia)|
AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
AIM: To create an alternative to sugar by replicating the sweetnessfound in natural sugar.
- To determine how the sweetness of sugar substitutes compare to the sweetness of sugar. In this research sugar and sugar substitutes will be tested and the sweetness will be compare in relation to sugar.
- To compare the availability and affordability of the active components in the artificial sweetener and sugar
- To know the components of this artificial sweetener and what makes them taste sweet
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
Artificial sweetener mimicking the taste of sugar will be a better alternative to people who are suffering from diabetics. Unlike sugar, artificial sweeteners generally don’t raise blood sugar levels because they are not carbohydrates.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
TABLE SUGAR (SUCROSE): Sugar was brought to the Americas by Christopher Columbus. At the time, sugar was processed by boiling the cane juice and then harvesting the crystals left behind after the water evaporated. These crystals contained protein, fiber, vitamins and minerals. Sugar is generally extracted from plants sugar beet and sugar cane or a main ingredient in many foods and recipes available as sucrose or saccharose (household sugar), lactose (milk sugar), fructose (fruit sugar), glucose (dextrose). [Abishak, 2009].
CLASSIFICATION OF SUGAR
Raw sugar: It is interesting to note that raw sugar is already refined. Only sugars from evaporated cane juice can be classified as truly raw or unrefined sugars. Sugars can come from other sources as well such as beets and fruit, once the cane juice crystals are harvested; they are washed, boiled, centrifuged, filtered and dried. The purpose of this is to remove all the original plant materials (stalk, fiber etc.) to produce pure sugar
This process removes most of the fiber and nutrients that existed in the original crystals. The sugar then becomes refined and is now a food high in calories with little nutritional value.
Refined sugar: several centuries ago, refined sugars were expensive to produce and were also taxed at a higher rate. Refined sugar is derived from cane juice but is extremely processed with many of the natural enzymes, vitamins, minerals and fiber removed.
Natural sugar: natural sweeteners include; barley malt, evaporated cane juice before it is refined, fruit juice, rice, syrup honey and sugar alcohols. [Wikipedia 2013]
MECHANISM OF ACTION IN THE BODY
Sucrose is the organic compound commonly known as table sugar and sometimes called saccharose. A white, odorless, crystalline powder with a sweet taste. The molecule is a disaccharide composed of the monosaccharide, glucose and fructose. Glucose is a carbohydrate and is the most important simple sugar in human metabolism. In living organisms the oxidation of glucose contributes to a series of complex biochemical reactions which provide the energy needed by cells. The first step in the breakdown of glucose in all cells is glycolysis, producing pyruvate which is the starting point for all other processes in cellular respiration. In cells where oxygen is present (aerobic respiration) these processes have been modeled in the TCA cycle. A major part of the use of the energy from glucose oxidation is the conversion of ADP to ATP with the energy rich molecule. ATP being subsequently used as the energy currency of the cell. [Jeremy, 2013]
SUGAR ALCOHOLS AND NOVEL SWEETENER
Sugar alcohols (polyols) are carbohydrates that occur naturally in certain fruits and vegetables, but they are also manufactured. They‟re not considered intense sweeteners, because they aren‟t sweeter than sugar. Infact, some are less sweet than sugar.
Sugar alcohols aren‟t considered non caloric or nonnutritive sweetener because they contain calories, but they‟re lower in calories. Despite their name sugar alcohols aren‟t alcoholic they don‟t contain ethanol which is found in alcoholic beverages.
Novel sweeteners are combinations of various types of sweeteners. Novels sweeteners such as stevia are hardtop fit into one particular category because of what they‟re made from and how they‟re made. Tegatose and Trehalose are considered novel sweeteners because of their chemical structure.
Tagatose is a low carbohydrate sweetener similar to fructose that occurs naturally but is also manufactured from lactose in dairy products.
USES OF SUGAR ALCOHOL
Sugar alcohols generally aren‟t used when food is prepared at home, rather they are found in many processed foods and other product including chocolate, candy, baked goods etc. usually replacing sugar on an equal basis. When added to foods sugar alcohols add sweetness, bulk and texture.
They also help food stay moist, prevent browning when heated and add a cooling sensation to products. Sugar alcohols are often combined with artificial sweeteners to enhance sweetness. [Mayo,2013].
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SUGAR
ADVANTAGES: Natural sugar is a direct form of glucose, which is required for the body to function. Insulin breaks down glucose or blood sugar and converts it into energy for the body to use, sugar in its natural or refined form is an easily digestible carbohydrate and a quick source of energy for the body.
DISAVANTAGES: There are many health concerns over sugar. Large amounts of sugar are required to make food sweet and because sugar contains a lot of calories, the body absorbs more calories and fat into its system. Similarly regularly eating food containing natural, refined or processed sugar increases the blood sugar intake and can result in type II diabetes, where the insulin in the body is inadequate to break up the amount of sugar in the bloodstream [Mayo, 2012].
Artificial sweeteners are synthetic sugar substitutes but may be derived from naturally occurring substances including herbs or sugar itself. Artificial sweeteners are also known as intense sweeteners because they are many times sweeter than regular sugar. Artificial sweeteners are chemical compositions and are not naturally in foods or naturally produced or extracted. There are a variety of artificial sweeteners available such as aspartame, saccharin, sucralose, neotame which are sold under brand names but can be identified by the chemical name on food packages. All artificial sweeteners must be approved by the Food and Drug Administration. [Whitney et al, 2011].
ADVANTAGES AND DISAVANTAGE
ADVANTAGES: Artificial sweetener can be chemically composed to be low in calories. Natural, refined or processed sugar is generally full of calories and large amounts of sugar are required to sweeten food, artificial sweetener, however is much sweeter than sugar up to 400 times sweeter and low in calories therefore less artificial sweetener is needed to make food sweet.
DISADVANTAGES: Artificial sweetener is a chemical compound and there has been concern about the body‟s ability to digest chemical compounds to natural sugar. Artificial sweeteners despite being lower in calories also provide less energy for the body to use. There are also concerns of side effects from consumingartificial sweeteners; aspartame for example contains 50 percent phenylalanine, 40 percent aspartic acid and 10 percent methanol which are considered dangerous neurotoxins. [Mayo, 2011].
REASONS FOR USE
To assist in weight loss: Some people chose to limit their food energy intake by replacing high energy. Sugar or corn syrup with other sweeteners having little or no food energy. This allows them to eat the same foods they normally would, while allowing them to lose weight and avoid other problems associated with excessive calorie intake.
Dental care: Sugar substitutes are tooth friendly as they‟re are not fermented by the microflora of the dental plaque. An example of a sweetener that can benefit dental health is xylitol. Xylitol works to prevent bacteria from adhering to the tooth surface thus preventing plaque formation and eventually decay.
Diabetes mellitus: People with diabetics have difficulty regulating their blood sugar levels. By limiting their sugar intake with artificial sweeteners they can enjoy their diet while closely controlling their sugar intake.
Reactive hypoglycemia: Individuals with reactive hypoglycemia will produce excess insulin after quickly absorbing glucose into the blood stream. This causes their blood glucose levels to fall below the amount needed for proper body and brain function. As a result like diabetes they must avoid intake of high glycemic foods and often chose artificial sweeteners as an alternative.
Cost: Many sugar substitutes are cheaper than sugar. Alternative sweeteners are often low in cost because of their long shelflife and high sweetening intensity. This allows alternative sweeteners to be used in products that will not perish after a short period of time.[ Wikepedia,2013].
2.2.3 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SUGAR AND ARTIFICIAL
Sugar is a natural form of energy for the body while artificial sweetener is a chemical compound. Sugar is edible crystalline substances extracted from sugarcane or sugar beet and is easily metabolized carbohydrate while the artificial sweeteners also known as sugar substitutes are additive used as alternative to sugar and are not naturally found in food. Artificial sweeteners are added to food for sweetness and are generally found in processed foods.[Victoria, 2012]
2.2.4 BIOCHEMICAL REACTION OF ARTIFICIAL SWEETENER
For an artificial sweetener to mimic the taste of sugar, it must first be soluble in water. In addition, the molecule must be able to bind to a specific receptor molecule that is located at the surface of the tongue. This receptor, known as G-protein coupled receptor, triggers a sequence of events resulting in nerve signals carried to the brain. The presence of these signals is interpreted as sweetness by the brain. G-protein coupled receptors however are not limited to the tongue, these receptors are also found in the intestinal tract, and also present signals to the brain. These nerves do not go to the brain for no reason at all. The nerve signals from the intestinal G-protein coupled receptors instruct the brain that a certain type of food is in the intestinal tract. Specifically the presence of the signals originating from the intestinal tract is telling the brain that sugar has been consumed and will be absorbed shortly. Expecting a rise in blood sugar levels the biochemistry of the body reacts accordingly. When an artificial sweetener is consumed, the brain receives signals but the cascade of neurological and a biochemical event occurs nevertheless. In faking out the body‟s neurological and biochemical mechanisms, the body has been prepared to receive nutrients specifically carbohydrates but the nutrients never show up in the
bloodstream. No evidence can be found indicating that sugar substittes help people lose weight. In reality the opposite is true. Hunger is triggered by the hypothalamus, a gland in the brain. When a person gets hungry the hypothalamus is what initiates the hunger, causing the person to eat. If the person eats food containing an artificial sweetener the body‟s hunger mechanism is not satisfied, as a result the appetite is continuously stimulated until the nutritional demands of the body are finally satisfied. If other calories are found in the product containing the artificial sweetener these additional calories are most likely contributing to the body‟s fat reserves. [John, 2012].