- 1 ABSTRACT
- 2 CHAPTER ONE
This research work empirically explored the effect of drill and practice on the academic achievement of students in English language in junior secondary schools. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the level of students’ academic performance taught using drill and practice technique in English language of junior secondary schools and determine measures for preventing low academic performance in English language due to drill and practice technique of teaching in junior secondary schools. The scope of the study is all secondary schools of Nigeria making use of student and staff of some selected secondary schools, the behaviuris theory was used as a framework. The research design used for this study is survey, the population targeted for this study consists of all secondary schools in Nigeria, a total of 30 schools was used as sample size consisting of 300 questionnaires administered to students and staffs and cluster sampling technique was applied. Instrument used for this study is the questionnaire. Data collected were collected from primary sources. From the analysis of the data, the findings shows that the level of students’ academic performance taught drill and practice technique is high, low academic performance due to drill and practice technique of teaching in junior secondary schools is prevented when teachers mix the way they use the technique. Following the findings, it was recommended that student of junior secondary schools should be taught with drill and practice technique, teachers should mix the way they use drill and practice technique to prevent boredom or difficulty to learn new context/add to existing knowledge. The study concludes that drill and practiced method of teaching in junior secondary schools should be embraced as this will help raise the level of comprehension.
1.1. Background to the Study
English language is the instrument of communication and the official language of Nigeria, therefore it becomes paramount for every individual residing in the country to be able to speak fluent English. The importance of English language to Nigeria is given, over 90% of transactions done in the country is done in English language ranging from the educational sector to the health sector.
It is therefore necessary that English language is thought properly in every educational institutions. Ferma (2003) was of the view that “a person is functionally literate when he acquired the knowledge and skill in reading and writing which enables him to engage effectively in all those activities in which literacy is normally assumed in his culture of group”. Drill and practice is a method of teaching adopted by junior secondary school teachers. Drill and practice is a method of instruction characterised by systematic repetition of concepts, examples and practical problems. Drill and practice is a disciplined and repetitious exercise used as a means of teaching and perfecting a skill or procedure. Tella (2007) drills are based on the principles of programed learning or instruction.
Students perception in learning should be changed through learning techniques. To develop or maintain one’s specific skills, the sub skills built through drill and practice should become the building blocks for more meaningful learning. In Nigeria, drill and practice have been a part of education for years. Drill and practice provides a two way form of communication in class.
However it is disheartening to note that the poor performance of students in English language in junior secondary schools is still persistent. English is the language used in teaching the students, a student having faulty foundation in English will find it difficult to cope with other subjects since level of comprehension becomes difficult if not impossible. Oluwole (2008) was of the view that “having difficulty in grasping fully the contents and concepts of the various subjects of the curriculum taught in target language seem to be one of the problems that English as a first language students face in their particular course of study”.
Education is one of the most important aspect of human life especially in this modern era where educational qualification obtained is inquired of when been considered for a job by employers. The educational system of Nigeria have been in crisis for many years ranging from the problem of presence of unqualified teachers in the educational system to the problem of lack of infrastructural facilities, negative attitude of students towards learning is also a major cause. Though (2011) states that some students buys book but do not make effective use of the book.
Government of Nigeria have tried in various ways to improve the quality of education in the country by introducing various policies such as the Nigeria “National Policy on Education” published in 1997, revised in 1981 and 1990. The policy had been revised to ensure that the educational sector is supportive of government development goals. Recent initiatives have also been taken by the government in the funding of education. The FGN/ODA Nigeria Community Education Programmes introduced in 1996. One of the objective of this initiatives are to restructure educational funding arrangement. Alternative sources of funding education have been explored. In 1995 the government established the Education Tax Fund.
Another notable change has been the effort to update the curriculum, a committee for the improvement of the curriculum was also established. The overall responsibility of the Federal Ministry of Education is to ensure quality within the system, to encourage and initiate innovations and to ensure the schools maintain minimum standards of acceptable educational practice. The National Commission for Colleges of Education was established in 1990 to lay down minimum standards for all programmes of teacher education.
In Nigeria, many junior secondary schools have been deficient in their operations and the overall effectiveness due to problems of teachers and students. Also the problem of not adequately equipped for teaching English language. This problem is pertinent to both the public and private educational institutions. While the public educational sector is faced with the problem of mismanagement, you find several private schools below standard right from the primary to the tertiary.
1.2. Statement of the Research Problem
Every country endeavours to provide quality education for its people, the future of such nation depends largely on it. The educational system of Nigeria is still faced with a lot of problems. Some of the problems include student learning skills, parental background, peer influence, teachers’ quality, learning infrastructure among others. The educational sector is responsible for performing several vital works in any economy. The various experts of various fields have to pass through the educational system to become one.
English proficiency is an essential factor in educational achievement. Student who learn English have to understand the concept. Conceptual learning, principles and understanding in English are not easy to master by student and this makes students less motivated and less interested to learn. This weakness causes student to perform poorly. It is discouraging to note that Nigeria students still perform poorly in English language. This is so much so in junior secondary schools of the country. Although, for some time now it appears government have tried various methods in resolving the issue low academic performance in English language in secondary schools.
Lack of application of effective teaching methodology is one of the major reasons of low academic performance in junior secondary schools in Nigeria. In Nigeria, most junior secondary school teachers teach their student without employing drill and practice technique. These is pertinent to public schools where the problem of overcrowded classes and unserious students is mostly experienced.
It is against this background that the researcher considered the effect of drill and practice on the academic achievement of students in English language in junior secondary schools.
1.3. Objectives of the study
The aim of this study was to ascertain the effect of drill and practice on the academic achievement of students in English language in junior secondary schools. The specific objectives are to:
- ascertain the level of students’ academic performance taught using drill and practice technique in English language of junior secondary schools.
- determine measures for preventing low academic performance in English language due to drill and practice technique of teaching in junior secondary schools.
1.4. Research Questions
This study will be guided by the following research questions:
- What is the level of students’ academic performance taught using drill and practice technique in English language of junior secondary schools?
- What are the measures for preventing low academic performance in English language due to drill and practice technique of teaching in junior secondary schools?
1.5. Significance of the Study
The critical nature of English language in particular and the educational sector in general to the success or growth of any economy is given, this is because English language is the official language used during transactions in Nigeria. Empirically, this study is carried out to investigate the effect of drill and practice on the academic achievement of students in English language in junior secondary schools so as to ameliorate the problems associated with it and proffer solutions. This study will be important to the academic sector of the nation, as it will help guide the boards in charge of school management on how it can operate and how it should operate. It will teach it the importance of English language to the country.
This study will be of utmost importance to investors, government and the researchers because it will provide policy recommendations to the various Nigeria stakeholders taking adequate measures in educational sector. It is hoped that the exploration of secondary schools will provide a broad view of the operations of the educational system to investors and government. It will contribute to existing literature on the subject matter by investigating empirically the role of English language in academic successes. This study will be of benefit to;
The Academia: members of the academia will find the study relevant as it will also form basis for further research and a reference tool for academic works.
Government: this study will reveal to the government happenings in the educational sector. Formulation and implementation of policies based on this findings would ensure development in the sector.
Investors: this study shall also be valuable to the investors especially those who may have research interest as it shall guide their private investment decisions.
This study at the end will enlighten the board of educational sector on the implication of English language.
1.6. Scope of the Study
This study is intended to investigate the effect of drill and practice on the academic achievement of students in English language in junior secondary schools in Nigeria, using some selected secondary schools in Bwari area council of FCT.
1.7. Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms have been defined operationally.
- English: English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and eventually become a global lingua franca. English is a language.
- Drill and practice: is a method of instruction characterised by systematic repetition of concepts, examples and practical problems. It is a disciplined and repetitious exercise used as a means of teaching and perfecting a skill or procedure.
- Secondary school: a school intermediate between elementary school and college usually offering general, technical, vocational or college preparatory courses.
- Effect: a change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause. Something that inevitably follow an incident.
- Academic performance: is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution attained their short or long-term educational goals.
- Academic achievement: ability to attain success in studies.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one is introduction which consists of the background to the study, statement of problem, research questions, research hypotheses, objectives of the study, the significance of the study, the scope and limitations of the study and finally the organization of the study. Chapter two deals with the literature review which consists of the conceptual literature, theoretical literature, empirical literature, theoretical framework. Chapter three gives the research methodology including research design, population of study, sample size, sampling technique, method of data collection, instrument of data analysis, method of data analysis, validity/reliability of instrument. Chapter four is presentation and analysis of data, discussion of findings. Chapter five gives the summary, conclusion and recommendations.