Effect Of Instructional Materials On Performance Of Social Studies Students In Junior Secondary Schools In Umunneochi Local Government Area Abia State Nigeria

Effect Of Instructional Materials On Performance Of Social Studies Students In Junior Secondary Schools

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ABSTRACT

This research work empirically explored the effect of instructional materials on performance of social studies students in junior secondary schools in Umunneochi local government area, Abia state Nigeria. The objectives of the study were ascertain the level of students’ academic performance in social studies in junior secondary schools of Umunneochi local government area, Abia state Nigeria, examine the influence of instructional material utilization on teaching of social studies in junior secondary schools of Umunneochi local government area, Abia state Nigeria, determine measures for preventing low academic performance using instructional materials in junior secondary schools of Umunneochi local government area, Abia state Nigeria. The scope of the study is all junior secondary schools of of Umunneochi local government area making use of student and staff of some selected secondary schools, the behaviourist theory was used as a framework. The research design used for this study is survey, the population targeted for this study consists of all secondary schools in Nigeria, a total of 50 schools was used as sample size consisting of 300 questionnaires administered to students and staffs and cluster sampling technique was applied. Instrument used for this study is the questionnaire. Data collected were collected from primary sources. From the analysis of the data, the findings shows that the level of students’ academic performance in social studies students in junior secondary schools of Umunneochi local government area is high, the level of students’ academic performance taught with instructional materials is very high, the problem of Low academic performance can be solved using instructional materials such as prints, visuals. Following the findings, it was recommended that student of junior secondary schools should be taught using instructional materials, teachers should use the different instructional materials when teaching such as prints, visuals, audio, and audio-visuals. The study concludes that the use of instructional materials when teaching in junior secondary schools should be embraced as this will help raise the level of comprehension.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background to the Study

The importance of using instructional materials in promoting students’ academic performance is giving. The use of instructional materials in teaching is a method adopted by junior secondary school teachers. Instructional materials also known as teaching/learning materials are any collection of materials including animate and inanimate objects and human and non-human resources that a teacher may use in teaching and learning situations to help achieve desired learning objectives.

Student’s perception in learning should be changed through learning techniques. To develop or maintain one’s specific skills, the sub skills built through instructional materials should become the building blocks for more meaningful learning. In Nigeria, teaching using instructional materials have been a part of education for years. In spite of the importance of social studies in national development and the effort of stakeholders to encourage the study of the subject, students have continued to show poor academic achievement (Agbara, 2010).

Social study is a school curriculum concerned with the study of social relationships and the functioning of the society. By providing relevant information and knowledge, skills and attitudes, social studies prepares students to grow up as active, responsible and reflective members of the society. It help students to understand developments taking place in society and the world as well as their roles in shaping the future of the nation. Social study help students grow their thinking ability by evaluating decisions taken by prominent leaders in the past, discover more about the winning and fails decisions made in the past. Therefore social study is a very important curriculum for student as it is a study connected with all aspects of human beings to enable them live a fulfilled life, comfortable life and a life full of achievement.

However it is disheartening to note that the poor performance of students in social studies in junior secondary schools is still persistent. Abdul Raheem (2011) observed that the objectives of social studies is yet to be achieved as a result of poor teaching and lack of inadequacy of instructional materials to motivate students. Instructional materials are essential and significant tools needed for teaching and learning to promote teachers efficiency and improve students’ performance.

Education is one of the most important aspect of human life especially in this modern era where educational qualification obtained is inquired of when been considered for a job by employers. The educational system of Nigeria have been in crisis for many years ranging from the problem of presence of unqualified teachers in the educational system to the problem of lack of infrastructural facilities, negative attitude of students towards learning is also a major cause.  Though (2011) states that some students buys book but do not make effective use of the book. Ahmed (2003) confirmed that in most secondary schools in Nigeria, teaching and learning takes place under a most unconducive environment without access to essential materials.

Government of Nigeria have tried in various ways to improve the quality of education in the country by introducing various policies such as the Nigeria “National Policy on Education” published in 1997, revised in 1981 and 1990. The policy had been revised to ensure that the educational sector is supportive of government development goals. Recent initiatives have also been taken by the government in the funding of education. The FGN/ODA Nigeria Community Education Programmes introduced in 1996. One of the objective of this initiatives are to restructure educational funding arrangement. Alternative sources of funding education have been explored. In 1995 the government established the Education Tax Fund.

Another notable change has been the effort to update the curriculum, a committee for the improvement of the curriculum was also established. The overall responsibility of the Federal Ministry of Education is to ensure quality within the system, to encourage and initiate innovations and to ensure the schools maintain minimum standards of acceptable educational practice. The National Commission for Colleges of Education was established in 1990 to lay down minimum standards for all programmes of teacher education.

In Nigeria, many junior secondary schools have been deficient in their operations and the overall effectiveness due to problems of teachers and students. Also the problem of not adequately equipped for teaching social studies. This problem is pertinent to both the public and private educational institutions. While the public educational sector is faced with the problem of mismanagement, you find several private schools below standard right from the primary to the tertiary.

1.2. Statement of the Research Problem

Every country endeavours to provide quality education for its people, the future of such nation depends largely on it. The educational system of Nigeria is still faced with a lot of problems. Some of the problems include student learning skills, parental background, peer influence, teachers’ quality, learning infrastructure among others. The educational sector is responsible for performing several vital works in any economy. The various experts of various fields have to pass through the educational system to become one.

Social studies proficiency is an essential factor in educational achievement. Student who learn social study have to understand the concept. Conceptual learning, principles and understanding in social studies are not easy to master by student and this makes students less motivated and less interested to learn. This weakness causes student to perform poorly. It is discouraging to note that Nigeria students still perform poorly in social studies. This is so much so in junior secondary schools of the country. Although, for some time now it appears government have tried various methods in resolving the issue of low academic performance in secondary schools.

Lack of application of effective teaching methodology is one of the major reasons of low academic performance in junior secondary schools in Nigeria. In Nigeria, most junior secondary school teachers teach their student without instructional materials. These is pertinent to public schools where the problem of overcrowded classes and unserious students is mostly experienced.

It is against this background that the researcher considered the effect of instructional materials on performance of social studies students in junior secondary schools in Umunneochi local government area, Abia state Nigeria.

1.3. Objectives of the study

The aim of this study was to ascertain the effect of instructional materials on performance of social studies students in junior secondary schools in Umunneochi local government area, Abia state Nigeria. The specific objectives are to:

  1. ascertain the level of students’ academic performance in social studies in junior secondary schools of Umunneochi local government area, Abia state Nigeria.
  2. examine the influence of instructional material utilization on teaching of social studies in junior secondary schools of Umunneochi local government area, Abia state Nigeria.
  3. determine measures for preventing low academic performance using instructional materials in junior secondary schools of Umunneochi local government area, Abia state Nigeria.

1.4. Research Questions

This study will be guided by the following research questions:

  1. What is the level of students’ academic performance in social studies students in junior secondary schools of Umunneochi local government area, Abia state Nigeria?
  2. What is the impact of instructional material utilization on teaching of social studies in junior secondary schools of Umunneochi local government area, Abia state Nigeria
  3. What are the measures for preventing low academic performance using instructional materials in junior secondary schools of Umunneochi local government area, Abia state Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

The study is guided by the following hypothesis:

H0:    There is no significant relationship between instructional material and academic performance of social studies students in junior secondary schools of Umunneochi local government area, Abia state Nigeria.

1.6. Significance of the Study

The critical nature of social studies in particular and the educational sector in general to the success or growth of any economy is given, this is because social studies prepares students to grow up as active, responsible and reflective members of the society. Empirically, this study is carried out to investigate the effect of instructional materials on performance of social studies students in junior secondary schools in Umunneochi local government area, Abia state Nigeria so as to ameliorate the problems associated with it and proffer solutions. This study will be important to the academic sector of the nation, as it will help guide the boards in charge of school management on how it can operate and how it should operate.  It will teach it the importance of social studies to the country.

This study will be of utmost importance to investors, government and the researchers because it will provide policy recommendations to the various Nigeria stakeholders taking adequate measures in educational sector.  It is hoped that the exploration of secondary schools will provide a broad view of the operations of the educational system to investors and government. It will contribute to existing literature on the subject matter by investigating empirically the role of instructional materials in academic successes. This study will be of benefit to;

The Academia: members of the academia will find the study relevant as it will also form basis for further research and a reference tool for academic works.

Government: this study will reveal to the government happenings in the educational sector. Formulation and implementation of policies based on this findings would ensure development in the sector.

Investors: this study shall also be valuable to the investors especially those who may have research interest as it shall guide their private investment decisions.

This study at the end will enlighten the board of educational sector on the implication of social studies.

1.7. Scope of the Study

This study is intended to investigate the effect of instructional materials on performance of social studies students in junior secondary schools in Umunneochi local government area, Abia state Nigeria, using some selected secondary schools in Umunneochi local government area, Abia state.

1.8. Operational Definition of Terms

The following terms have been defined operationally.

  • Social studies: social studies is a part of school curriculum concerned with the study of social relationships and the functioning of society.
  • Instructional materials: instructional materials refers to human and non-human materials and facilities that can be used to ease, encourage, improve and promote teaching and learning activities.
  • Secondary school: a school intermediate between elementary school and college usually offering general, technical, vocational or college preparatory courses.
  • Effect: a change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause. Something that inevitably follow an incident.
  • Academic performance: is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution attained their short or long-term educational goals.
  • Academic achievement: ability to attain success in studies.

1.9. Organization of the Study

This study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one is introduction which consists of the background to the study, statement of problem, research questions, research  hypotheses,  objectives  of  the study, the  significance  of  the  study,   the scope  and  limitations  of  the  study  and  finally the  organization of the study. Chapter two deals with the literature review which consists of the conceptual literature, theoretical literature, empirical literature, theoretical framework. Chapter three gives the research methodology including research design, population of study, sample size, sampling technique, method of data collection, instrument of data analysis, method of data analysis, validity/reliability of instrument.  Chapter four is presentation and analysis of data, discussion of findings. Chapter five gives the summary, conclusion and recommendations.

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    April 6, 2020

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    April 6, 2020

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