EFFECT OF INTERNET-BASED TOOLS ON PERFORMANCE OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN BIOLOGYin
The study is designed to find out the effect of internet – base tools on performance of senior secondary school students in biology in Kaduna state. The study try to establish the computer skills of students to determine if there is any significant difference in the performance of learners when exposed to the traditional approach and those exposed to learning Biology with the Internet – Based Learning Tools. The research design is experimental study. Four schools were randomly selected, two schools were urban while the other two were rural schools, and two also out of the selected schools were private schools while the two were public schools in order to determine school type and location.
One of the schools was boys only while the other school was girls only to determine gender, 100 students were used for the experimental study, twenty five students each in a class. The pre-test post-test control group design was carried out. The experimental group was exposed to a blend of three approaches which includes direct teaching with the internet tool integration, while control group had the traditional method. The t -test analysis of the post test revealed that there is a significant difference in the performance of learners taught using the Internet – based learning tool. The use of the Internet – Based Learning Tools can make a significant difference in the performance of learners in Biology as compared to the traditional chalk and talk approach. Those in urban areas have more advantages than those in rural areas in terms of availability and easy access to the internet facilities which enhances their performance. Both there is no differences in the performance of both Male and Female Biology Students with the integration of Internet –based learning tools. Subject combination has great influence on the performance of the students with the integration of the internet – based learning tools. The Internet – Based Learning Tools has significant effect on the students performance in Biology teaching, the education stake holders in Kaduna state are to ensure that learning becomes fully blended with the Internet – Based Learning Tools.
AIS – African Information Society
CD – ROM – Compact Disc Read – Only Memory
CRCD – Collect, Relate, Create, Donate.
DSS – Digital Satellite System
ETF – Education Trust Fund
FME – Federal Ministry Education
FRN – Federal Radio of Nigeria
ICT – Information and Communication Technology
MIU – Mobile Internet Unit
NEPAD – New Partnership for African Development
NITDA – Nigerian National Information Technology Development Agency
RPGs – Role Playing Games
UBE – Universal Basic Education
UNESCO – United Nations Educational Scientific – Cultural Organization
WAN – Wide Area Network
WBLE – Web Base Learning Environment
1.1 Background to the Study
The introduction of western education in Nigeria in the early 19th century has brought with it variety of teaching methods and instructional materials. Instructional materials were meant to assist the teacher in presenting the lesson in a manner that will be well understood by students. Indeed part of a teacher’s professional responsibility is to prepare his lesson properly, and major component of writing the lesson is the selection of appropriate instructional materials to ensure effective lesson delivery. Some of the initial teaching aids used by the teachers included maps, charts, flip charts and physical objects. In the corvette of time and with the development in technology, there was the introduction of slides, transparencies, audio materials and videos. Mhlolo (2007), says, this enhanced the ability of teachers to teach more effectively and for the students to learn in more concrete ways.
The importance of curriculum materials in teaching and learning Biology in secondary schools cannot be over emphasized, some of the importance includes; stimulation of the learners interest, making teaching and learning more productive, making teaching become more concrete, real and immediate, contributing to performance analysis, stimulation of problem solving in students and helping to clarify complex events and situation among others.
According to National Policy on Education (2009), one of the aims and objectives of teaching Biology in secondary schools is the ability to communicate the skills of Biology to ensure tha Biology students acquire the process and skills of Biology as a science subject. This cannot be effectively achieved unless students are exposed sufficiently to practical work and laboratory experiments. The creative use of curriculum materials by teachers has increased the probability that the students will learn more, retain better what they learn and improve the performance of the skills that they develop. The aims of secondary Education according to the NPE are to equip the students to live effectively in the modern age of science and technology. The Biology Curriculum recognizes the utilization of discovery approach in the teaching and learning of Biology. This involves demonstration, individual practical work, group discussions, field work, project work and building models.
Nwagwu (2006), says, over the years, West/North Television (WNTV) was established in order to reduce teaching deficiencies in subject such as sciences, provide examples of good teachings, helped to upgrade the general quality of classroom instructional activities and enrich contents. Biology theorist and practitioners have always made concerted efforts to facilitate students learning through each phase of learning Biology by enhancing the quality of learning experiences through the use and proper application of instructional materials to each of the Biology phases of learning.
Aladejana (2008), says, Nigeria witness a gradual improvement on the quality of teaching with the introduction of computers, later the internet based learning tools were introduced into the Educational system especially in the field of science which has changed the way teaching and learning takes place in our secondary schools today. The invention of the telegraph, telephone, radio, and computer set the stage for unprecedented Integration of capabilities. The Internet based learning tool is the wholesome integration of modern telecommunications equipment and ICT resources into the educational system. Internet based learning tools as aspect of ICT is relatively new in Nigeria’s educational system. It is a departure from the use of conventional tools for curriculum implementation.
The introduction of the computer opened another opportunity for the Biology Education sector; most secondary schools in Nigeria today are using the computers as learning tool, the World Wide Web created a wider platform for the teaching and learning of Biology in secondary schools. Today there are several instructional materials and learning tools that have made the Classroom to become boarder less. Yusuf (2005), says, the primary purposes of curriculum implementation are to achieve the objectives of instruction and achieve retention and transfer of knowledge. Evoh (2007), says, Internet based tools are used as instructional medium that permits alternative approaches to curriculum implementation. With the internet based learning teachers no longer need to be worried about whether an instructional material is appropriate for the lesson to be taught, its relevance, simplicity simplification of concepts and the accuracy of the teaching aids, because the materials are seen as in real life, real situation and the information is quiet accurate.
Portrayal (2010), says, the professional teachers development opportunities are easily provided where the pedagogy of learning and teaching of both the relevant Biology topics and its digital representations are available with the Internet – Based Learning Tools, then teachers see the immediate pedagogic benefit to students learning even with the weakest link of the class. . On the other hand interactive technology encourages active learning; hence teaching should no longer center around transfer of content from teacher to student. With the advent of Internet based learning, the features, functions, physiology of different organs, life styles of different animals, ecology etc could be seen life and in action, while some are viewed as Animation, simulations etc as seen in real life, answers that students’ assume is impossible to be answered are answered. The internet based learning tools arouse learning, stimulate interest, motivate and promote the spirit of research among learners. The internet based learning tools can provide the students with examples of real life situations with specific knowledge required in addition to sound, color, and movements and stimulate the student’s sensorial apparatus and bring a sense of enjoyment to the learning process. The development and expansion of the modern technology which involves the use of the internet – Based Learning Tools has now become part of the teaching and learning in Nigerian Secondary Schools, Colleges of Education, Polytechnics and Universities. However in spite of these expansions is not every school that uses these tools in their teaching. In order to use the recent technology in Kaduna State in recognition of its importance and as one of the measures to reduce the high rate of failures in biology subject in the West African Examination Council (WAEC), National Examination Council (NECO), the Government of Kaduna State have made several efforts to ensure that all its secondary schools are ICT compliant by providing computers and installation of Internet facilities in all its Secondary Schools across the state. The Internet – Based Learning Tools are those Educational platforms that provide academic information via the wide web world, offering free lessons, and information’s, teaching and learning strategies, promoting research activities, academic presentations for both the teachers and students. Some of these Internet – Based Learning Tools include, Dassault, Centegage, Khan Academy, Encarta Micro Soft, Wikipedia, ERASYAPP, Slide rule, Google scholar etc .
In addition to the State efforts, the Federal Government of Nigeria, Education Trust Funds (ETF), International organizations, philanthropists in support of education in Nigeria also donated computers to all the secondary schools in country. Computer literacy programs and seminars were organized for Secondary School teachers to compliment the efforts made by the above mentioned bodies to ensure full compliant. However despite the opportunity provided the effectiveness of the internet based learning tools has not yet been established and documented especially in Biology teaching in Kaduna State. Despite the expansion and efforts made by the Kaduna State Government and the Federal Government is not every teacher and every school that has adopted the use of the Internet –Based Learning Tools in their teaching and learning of Biology.
This attracts the researcher to take on this study to find out the effectiveness of the Internet Based Learning Tools in the improvement of teaching of Biology in Kaduna State and as well the factors that may hinder its effectiveness, now that all attentions of Education stakeholders, the societies, 4
parents and even the Students of Kaduna State is geared and focus towards ways and measures to be taken to improve the standard of Education in State and the country at large.
1.2 Statement of the Problems
Biology has been taught at schools for years, the teachers have been facing a problem on how to get students to fully understand Biology. Many students perceived Biology as too wide and too difficult to comprehend, while the Biology textbooks are too difficult to read and understand which has contributed to the fluctuating results of Biology in NECO and WEAC. The call for application of internet- based learning tools in Biology teaching in Kaduna State Senior Secondary Schools is to infuse and inject efficiency and effectiveness in Biology curriculum implementation. The effective integration of internet- based learning tools in the implementation of Biology Curriculum and its pedagogy require the schools readiness, and the proficiencies of its teachers. However even the developing countries like Nigeria; internet -based learning is challenged with problems of inadequate and functional computers, absence of the internet itself can be as a result of it high cost of installation and maintenance, problem of power supply has consistently been poor in Nigeria. Lack of trained Biology Teachers on ICT to effectively utilize the Biology soft ware’s for effective teaching of Biology. Inadequate infrastructures and poor environment for internet based learning to take place effectively among others. The current method of teaching Biology in our secondary schools may be too static and boring due to lack of adequate teaching aids, the internet has made provision of different categories of the teaching aids required for every topic in Biology, the question is how effective are those Internet – Based Learning Tools in assisting the performance of the student’s in Biology? Despite the above mentioned problems secondary schools in Kaduna State employ some of the internet based learning tools for teaching of Biology. The study therefore intends to find out the effectiveness of the Internet – Based Learning Tools employed by the Kaduna State Senior Secondary Schools in the teaching of Biology.
1.3 Objectives of the Study.
To guide this study, the following objectives are formulated:
- determine the effect of Internet-Based Learning Tools on the Performance of Senior Secondary School Students in Biology in Kaduna State, Nigeria.
- find out the impact of Internet – Based Tools on Performance of Senior Secondary School Students taught Biology Internet-Based Learning Tools with respect to gender difference in Kaduna State, Nigeria
- examine the extent to which Internet-Based Learning Tools affect Senior Secondary
School Students’ Performance in Biology as a result of school location difference in Kaduna State, Nigeria
- verify the effect of Internet-Based Learning Tools on the Performance of Senior Secondary School Students in Biology with regard to school type in Kaduna State, Nigeria
- determine the extent to which Internet-Based Learning Tools affect Senior Secondary School Students’ Performance in Biology as a result subject combinations difference in Kaduna State, Nigeria
1.4 Research Questions
In order to provide the research with sense of direction or focus, the following research questions
are put forward:
- What is the effect of the use of internet – based learning tools on the performance of senior secondary school students in Biology in Kaduna State?
- Are there any gender differences in the performance of students taught Biology using Internet – Based Learning Tools ?
- Are there any differences in the performance of students from rural and urban centers taught Biology using Internet – Based Learning Tools in Kaduna state?
- Are there differences in the performance from private and public schools taught Biology using the Internet – Based Learning Tools in Kaduna State?
- Does the use Internet – Based Learning Tools affect the performance Students of Arts or science subject in Biology in Kaduna state?
The following Hypotheses are postulated and will be tested in the course of study:
Ho1: there is no significant difference between performances of students taught Biology with traditional method, and those taught with Internet – Based Learning Tools.
Ho2: there is no significant difference between performances of boys and girls taught Biology with the Internet – Based Learning Tools.
Ho3: there is no significant difference between performance of students from rural location and those from urban location taught Biology with Internet – Based Learning Tools.
Ho4: there is no significant difference between performances of students in private school and public school taught Biology using Internet – Based Learning Tools.
Ho5: the use of Internet – Based Learning Tools has no significant effect on the performance of Senior Secondary Schools Students of different Subject combination.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
- Internet – based Learning tools are available and utilized in some senior secondary schools in Kaduna state.
- The performance of both boys and girls taught Biology with the use of the Internet – Based Learning tools is the same with no indication of Gender difference.
- Students’ from the Urban area taught Biology using the Internet – Based learning Tools is commensurate to the performance of the students from the rural area.
- Both Private and Public Secondary School Students perform the same after being taught Biology with the Internet – Based Learning Tools.
- Arts, commerce and science Students perform the same and well with the integration of Internet – Based learning Tools in the teaching and learning of Biology
1.7 Significance of the Study
The need to promote stimulates, encourage, motive and foster effective teaching of Biology in Senior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State. Over the years, stakeholders of Education in Kaduna State like the State education board, NGO’s on educational development, Education Trust Fund, Parents Teachers Association, philanthropist, Teachers Associations, Ministry of Education and other governmental and non- governmental associations too numerous to mention are worried over the poor academic performance of students in science subjects. The inculcation of Internet Based Technology Tools into the teaching of Biology will be of great importance. Teachers are the implementers of the curriculum in the classroom and it’s expected that their sound knowledge of the use of Internet and how to use the Internet tools in teaching and learning of Biology would not only go a long way in achieving this goal, but also improve the standards of Biology education towards achieving excellence.
This study is therefore significant to the major beneficiaries who are the students by improving their understanding of the Biology as a subject, because they see things as in real life. It will as well increase their motivation and inculcate in them the spirit of research and give them the freedom to expose their inner talent which will also be beneficial to the country’s development, the use of the internet – based learning tools will give the students the opportunity to communicate and interact
with other students or teachers across the globe and compete with them effectively. It will as well give the students some sense of responsibility to be able to take of their learning and reduces too much dependent on teachers for answers to their questions. The use of the internet – based learning tools will enhance their performance leading to a better result in their both their internal and external assessment. Teachers are also beneficiaries, because when students understanding and performance is enhanced, it promotes the teachers spirit and motivate the teacher. The teachers work is also made easy because the students are taking the responsibility of some aspect of their learning. It assist the teacher by providing understanding of the lesson in addition to different approaches and other teaching and learning techniques employed by the teachers. The study will serve as another reference material for effecting reforms in the Value and effectiveness of integrating Internet Based Tools in teaching and learning of Biology in secondary schools in Kaduna State. Among other things the study will be significant in the following ways:
- create more awareness of the opportunities offered by the use of Internet- Based Tools as an important educational tool in effective teaching and learning of Biology in Senior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State especially to schools that are yet to recognize and understand the importance of the internet – based learning tools for fast delivery of instruction and quick understanding response by the students..
- promote the harmonization of Biology teaching and learning activities approach to be same with other senior secondary schools across the globe through collaborative learning by sharing different information as well as improving the spirit of research in biology. Through individual researcher work or cooperative research work ideas can be shared and the utilization of the idea can be uniform, others are as well given the opportunity to improve on it. Biology is a subject that is full of discovery and has given so many opportunities for research work.
- enhance or promote collaborative, group studies, and interactive learning among
Biology students’ from different part of the country. This will enhance their further understanding and retention of biology content, leading to the development of new ideas and understanding. With collaborative learning, students exchange ideas, share experiences and develop new concepts suitable for their studies. With collaborative learning students can exchange ideas and information’s without travelling wide through the internet.
- facilitate the development and use of Internet Based Tools as a pedagogical tool for teaching and learning of Biology and for the professional development of Biology teachers in Senior Secondary School in Kaduna State. The internet – based platforms provide teachers with the opportunities to develop themselves as well as the students, private classrooms are provided.
- enhance or promote of an integrated e – learning to support the presences of Internet based Tools in Biology laboratories for the teaching of Biology in Senior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State.
- serve as a motivator to the students by channeling them towards the proper direction to perceive the integration of Internet- Based tools into teaching and learning Biology in the proper perspective and study it with appreciation and recognition of its importance to the society.
- provide state governments with comparison on the effect of use of internet – based learning tools on the performance of senior secondary school students in Biology with other schools within same zone, which could facilitate effective and urgent
action towards providing and making their schools ICT compliant.
- attainment of the goals and objectives of the National Policy on education of (2004), and the successful implementation of the educational road map for the education sector (2009), as well as well as the ideal for universal basic education program (2004) and the Millennium Development Goals on education, declaration 2 and 3 in Nigeria, and UN ECOSOC Ministerial declaration (2000) which provided special attention to the application of ICT and urgent and concerted actions from all regions. The above policies were initiated towards the improvement of education; the effect of use of internet – based learning tools on the performance of the senior secondary school students is another step towards the attainment of the goals of the above policies.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The mission of this study is to find out effectiveness of the Internet – Based Learning Tools on the performance of Senior Secondary School Student’s in Biology in Kaduna State. It strive to find out the extent to which the Internet – Based Learning Tools affect the student’s performance, whether gender differences has any effect on the student’s performance using the Internet – Based Learning Tools in Teaching Biology, others also include school location, school type whether private or public senior secondary schools and subject combination of the student has any effect on the Student’s performance using the Internet – Based Learning Tools in Kaduna State. The study would be conducted in Senior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State. The study would be centered on Internet Based Tools and Biology teaching and those factors that contribute to the effective integration of Internet Based Tools and Biology in the Senior Secondary Schools in the State.
The study is limited to the Biology SS11 Biology Students who are the key players in the performance objectives of the study. The study will consider the SS11, who are more familiar with the subject than the SS1. The SS3 are not considered because they will be busy with both Qualifying examinations and external examinations. The study will also make use of the downloaded programs from the Internet – Based Learning Tools using the CD – ROM and projectors in most cases, this is due to differences in time when the internet platforms are transmitting, electrical problems is also a hindrance factor, lack of internet services at the time the lesson is expected to take place. The selection for the sampled students used (25 students each) was a result of the limited number of efficient, adeuquate number of computers to effectively use for the experiment, and also the number of computers with internet connections.