- 1 ABSTRACT
- 2 CHAPTER ONE
This research work empirically explored the major factors affecting secondary school oral English instructions. The purpose of which is to investigate the level of oral English communication skills on educational sector as well proffer solution to the problems of Nigeria educational system. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the level of students performance in oral English in secondary schools and determine measures for improving oral English instruction in secondary schools. The scope of the study is all secondary schools of Nigeria making use of student and staff of some selected secondary schools in Abaji area council of FCT, the Krashen’s Monitor Model theory was used as a framework. The research design used for this study is survey, the population targeted for this study consists of all secondary schools in Nigeria, a total of 30 schools was used as sample size consisting of 300 questionnaires administered to students and staffs and cluster sampling technique was applied. Instrument used for this study is the questionnaire. Data collected were collected from primary sources. From the analysis of the data, the findings shows that the level of student performance in oral English in secondary schools is average and needs to be raised and Provision of infrastructural facilities, reading, discussion, effective writing are major strategies to improve oral English skills. Following the findings, it was recommended that the level of oral English skills in secondary schools should be raised, Various strategies that will help raise the level of oral English skills in secondary schools should be adopted such as employment of only qualified teachers, discussions, rehearsal, group work, narrating, free talking sessions should be adopted by teachers as methods of instructing oral English. The study concludes that improving the level of oral English skills in secondary schools has a positive impact on Nigeria educational since oral English skills make very significant contribution to communication.
1.1. Background to the Study
The goal of learning a language is to communicate. Oral communication skills are fundamental to the development of literacy. Communication skills are vital for a student’s academic success and future career prospect. In today’s challenging world student must possess academic expertise. Communication is a dynamic process since it involves two or more persons and its main purpose is to transmit thoughts and beliefs. The way such thought are transmitted matters. Oral communication is the process of expressing ideas through the medium of speech, this plays a crucial role in the life of students.
English language is the instrument of communication and the official language of Nigeria, therefore it becomes paramount for every individual residing in the country to be able to speak fluent English. The importance of English language to Nigeria is given, over 90% of transactions done in the country is done in English language ranging from the educational sector to the health sector. Oral is an examination, especially in a foreign language that is spoken rather than written. It can also be described as spoken English.
It is therefore necessary that oral English is thought properly in every educational institutions. Ferma (2003) was of the view that “a person is functionally literate when he acquired the knowledge and skill in reading and writing which enables him to engage effectively in all those activities in which literacy is normally assumed in his culture of group”.
The provision of adequate instruction in oral English is very important. Oral English was introduced in Nigeria in 1977 as part of English language paper. It is obvious that students are mostly faced with the problems of oral proficiency, which could be due to mother tongue. However there have been emphasis on the quest to resolve this.
Oral English complements the understanding of English language. The teaching of Oral English in Nigeria secondary schools has previously been overlooked. However it is disheartening to note that the poor performance of students in oral English in secondary schools is still persistent since its inception. Idris (2001) said not much has been achieved since the introduction of oral English in West Africa Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO) due to the problem associated with the teaching and learning of oral English.
Education is one of the most important aspect of human life especially in this modern era where educational qualification obtained is inquired of when been considered for a job by employers. The educational system of Nigeria have been in crisis for many years ranging from the problem of presence of unqualified teachers in the educational system to the problem of lack of infrastructural facilities, negative attitude of students towards learning is also a major cause. Consequently, the teaching of oral English is rather weighed down by various factors.
Government of Nigeria have tried in various ways to improve the quality of education in the country by introducing various policies such as the Nigeria “National Policy on Education” published in 1997, revised in 1981 and 1990. The policy had been revised to ensure that the educational sector is supportive of government development goals. Recent initiatives have also been taken by the government in the funding of education. The FGN/ODA Nigeria Community Education Programmes introduced in 1996. One of the objective of this initiatives are to restructure educational funding arrangement. Alternative sources of funding education have been explored. In 1995 the government established the Education Tax Fund.
Another notable change has been the effort to update the curriculum, a committee for the improvement of the curriculum was also established. The overall responsibility of the Federal Ministry of Education is to ensure quality within the system, to encourage and initiate innovations and to ensure the schools maintain minimum standards of acceptable educational practice. The National Commission for Colleges of Education was established in 1990 to lay down minimum standards for all programmes of teacher education.
The study therefore examine some of the major factors affecting secondary school oral English instructions.
1.2. Statement of the Research Problem
Every country endeavours to provide quality education for its people, the future of such nation depends largely on it. The educational system of Nigeria is still faced with a lot of problems. Some of the problems include student learning skills, parental background, peer influence, teachers’ quality, learning infrastructure, poor teaching methodology, and lack of constant practice among others.
Oral English proficiency is an essential factor in educational achievement. It is discouraging to note that Nigeria students still perform poorly in oral English. This is so much so in secondary schools of the country. Although, for some time now it appears government have tried various methods in resolving it.
It is against this background that the researcher considered the study of factors affecting secondary school oral English instruction.
1.3. Objectives of the study
The aim of this study is to identify the factors affecting secondary school oral English instruction. The specific objectives are to:
- ascertain the level of students performance in oral English in secondary schools.
- determine measures for improving oral English instruction in secondary schools.
1.4. Research Questions
This study will be guided by the following research questions:
- What is the level of student’s performance in oral English in secondary schools?
- What are the measures for improving oral English instruction in secondary schools?
1.5. Significance of the Study
The critical nature of oral English to the success or growth of any educational system is given, this is because good communication enables students to assimilate more from the learning process. English language is the official, how it is spoken is important. Empirically, this study is carried out to identify the factors affecting secondary school oral English instruction so as to ameliorate the problems associated with it. This study will be important to the academic sector of the nation, as it will help guide the boards in charge of school management on how it can operate and how it should operate. It will teach it the importance of oral English.
This study will be of utmost importance to investors, government and the researchers because it will provide policy recommendations to the various Nigeria stakeholders taking adequate measures in educational sector. It is hoped that the exploration of secondary schools will provide a broad view of the operations of the educational system to investors and government. It will contribute to existing literature on the subject matter by investigating empirically the role of oral English in academic successes. This study will be of benefit to;
The Academia: members of the academia will find the study relevant as it will also form basis for further research and a reference tool for academic works.
Government: this study will reveal to the government happenings in the educational sector. Formulation and implementation of policies based on this findings would ensure development in the sector.
Investors: this study shall also be valuable to the investors especially those who may have research interest as it shall guide their private investment decisions.
This study at the end will enlighten the board of educational sector on the implication of oral English.
1.6. Scope of the Study
This study is intended to investigate the factors affecting secondary school oral English instruction, using some selected secondary schools in Abaji area council of federal capital territory (FCT).
1.7. Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms have been defined operationally.
- Oral: it is an examination, especially in foreign language that is spoken rather than written.
- Oral English: it is spoken English.
- English: English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and eventually become a global lingua franca. English is a language.
- Secondary school: a school intermediate between elementary school and college usually offering general, technical, vocational or college preparatory courses.
- Instruction: detailed information about how something should be done or operated.
- Academic performance: is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution attained their short or long-term educational goals.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one is introduction which consists of the background to the study, statement of problem, research questions, research hypotheses, objectives of the study, the significance of the study, the scope and limitations of the study and finally the organization of the study. Chapter two deals with the literature review which consists of the conceptual literature, theoretical literature, empirical literature, theoretical framework. Chapter three gives the research methodology including research design, population of study, sample size, sampling technique, method of data collection, instrument of data analysis, method of data analysis, validity/reliability of instrument. Chapter four is presentation and analysis of data, discussion of findings. Chapter five gives the summary, conclusion and recommendations.