Fine art is an art produced or intended primarily for beauty rather than utility. Applied art are arts in which objects are designed or created in order to be used rather than simply viewed. Fine and applied art remains an essential feature. Reason being that it help preserve cultural heritage and also serve as source of income. Studying closely the history of fine and applied art in Umar Suleiman College of education Ghasuar, Fine Arts has transited from its experimental stage to become permanently enshrined in the Faculty at Umar Suleiman College of Education Gashua. Embedded in this study is an exposure of fine and applied art in Nigeria. A major finding was that the level of facilities available and lovers of arts are declining, this could be due to economic issues. It was recommended that needed facilities be provided by government and art protected. For this study, the historical approach was adopted with the qualitative method of secondary data collection.
1.1. Background to the Study
Fine and applied arts is not left without its benefit such as promoting self-esteem, motivation, aesthetic awareness, cultural exposure, improved emotional expression, creativity, social harmony and appreciation of diversity. Every child has a right to education. Education can be obtained through formal and informal institution of learning. Osborne (1970) said art education is bringing up or training up people, it is instruction which embraces a number of activities. Kirkpatrick (1983) explains that it is a practical skill and application of skill to production of beauty, especially visible beauty, and it is a skilled profession of trade, craft or branch of activity.
Uzoagba (2002) fine and applied art is the art of expressing, reproducing, interpreting and communicating nature as perceived, experienced and felt through painting, moulding, craving and drawing patterns and figures out of human experiences, ideas, observation and imagination of things and life. It uses forms, lines, colours, textures and materials in an organized way. Creativity of fine and applied arts when adequately utilized create a form of wealth to such individual and a nation as a whole. Ogumor (1993) state that art is the ability and desire of man to improve upon the world by modifying and adding to nature.
Umar Suleiman College of Education was initially named Advanced Teacher College by the then Borno state government. In 1988, it metamorphosed to College of Education on the orders of the same state government. Gashua, the location of the college is presently in Yobe state, having been carved out of Borno state in 1991. It is 185 kilometres north of Damarturu, the state capital. In 2007, the school was named Umar Suleiman College of Education Gashua by the Yobe state government.
Fine and applied arts is one of the academic department established at the inception of Umar Suleiman College of Education Gashua in 1986. The department of fine and applied arts which belongs to the school of vocational education has had a fair share of the overall development of the college. The department started with three academic staff headed by Late Midala Mshelia and one student _Danladi. However, over the years the department has expanded in structure, faculty and facility.
1.2. Statement of the Research Problem
Fine and applied art education generally is faced with a lot of problems which have inhibit the efficient and effective learning of arts in Nigeria. The fine and applied art department of Umar Suleiman College of education Gashuar is not an exception. Despite the several efforts made to maintain continuity, the department is still faced with the problem of insufficient facilities, the various reconstruction of structures undergone in the school involved converting block structures into classrooms has made teaching and production of art difficult.
Also there is the problem of insecurity in the region which prevent interactions and learning of various cultural practices which art promotes. There is inadequacy in the performance of fine and applied arts in performing its role of maintaining the country’s cultural heritage.
It is against this backdrop that the researcher trace the historical analysis of academic programme of department of fine and applied arts in Umar Suleiman College of Education Gashuar.
1.3. Objectives of the study
The aim of this study is to trace the historical analysis of academic programme of department of fine and applied arts in Umar Suleiman College of Education Gashuar. The specific objectives are to:
- investigate the history development of department of fine and applied arts in Umar Suleiman College of Education Gashuar.
- examine the relevance of fine and applied art in Nigeria.
1.4. Research Questions
This study will be guided by the following research questions:
- What are the history development of department of fine and applied arts in Umar Suleiman College of Education Gashuar?
- Is fine and applied art relevant in Nigeria?
1.5. Significance of the Study
The critical nature of fine and applied art to the world is given. This is because fine and applied art is another way of expressing emotions and creating utility. Empirically, this study is carried out to assess the history of the department of fine and applied art Umar Suleiman College of Education Gashuar so as to ameliorate the problems faced by the department.
This study will be important to the department of fine and applied art Umar Suleiman College of Education Gashuar as it will help guide the department on how it can operate. It will teach it the importance of fine and applied art and the necessary guide of strategizing, teaching and learning art.
This study will be of utmost importance to investors, government and the researchers because it will provide policy recommendations to the various Nigeria stakeholders taking adequate measures in the art industry for rapid capacity investment. It is hoped that the exploration of the department of fine and applied art Umar Suleiman College of Education Gashuar will provide a broad view of the operations of art production to investors and government. It will contribute to existing literature on the subject matter by investigating empirically the role, which fine and applied art plays in the country. This study will be of benefit to;
The Academia: members of the academia will find the study relevant as it will also form basis for further research and a reference tool for academic works.
Government: this study will reveal to the government happenings in the art industry. Formulation and implementation of policies based on this findings would ensure development in the area.
Investors: this study shall also be valuable to the investors especially those who may have research interest as it shall guide their private investment decisions.